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is a brunch of linguistics which studies properties of Ws, changes of Ws, their connection in W-combinations, sentences & in the text. There R 2 branches of G. Morphology
is a branch of G wh. Studies the Ws as parts of speech. Syntax
is a br. Of G wh. Studies W-combinations, sentences & texts.
According to their meaning, morphological characteristics and syntactical functions, words fall under certain classes called parts of speech.
Grammatists distinguish between notional and structural parts of speech. The notional parts of speech perform certain functions in the sentence: the functions of subject, predicate, attribute, object, or adverbial modifier.
The notional parts of speech are:
(1) The Noun;
(2) The Adjective;
(3) The Pronoun;
(4) The Numeral;
(5) The Verb;
(6) The Adverb;
(7) The Words of the Category of State;
(8) The Modal Words;
(9) The Interjection.
The structural parts of speech either express relations between words or sentences or emphasize the meaning of words or sentences. They never perform any independent function in the sentence. Here belong:
(1) The Preposition;
(2) The Conjunction;
(3) The Particle;
(4) The Article.
The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the word. The noun has the following morphological characteristics:
1. Nouns that can be counted have two numbers:
singular and plural (e. g. singular: a girl,
2. Nouns denoting living beings (and some nouns denoting lifeless things) have two case forms
: the common case and the genitive case.
The noun has certain syntactical characteristics
The chief syntactical functions of the noun in the sentence are those of the subject
and the object
. But it may also be used as an attribute
or a predicative
was rising in all his splendid beauty. (Dickens)
Troy and Yates followed the tourists
He (Bosinney) was an architect
To the left were clean panes of glass
. (Сh. Bronte)
Bicket did not answer, his throat felt too dry. He had heard of the police. (Galsworthy)
She went into the drawing room
and lighted the fire. (Mansfield)
English countable nouns have two numbers: the singular
and the plural.
The main types of the plural forms of English nouns are as follows:
1. The general rule for forming the plural of English nouns is by adding the ending -s (-es)
to the singular: flowers, beds, doves, bees, boys etc.
2. If the noun ends in -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch,
the plural is formed by adding -es
to the singular:
bus — buses box — boxes bench — benches
glass—glasses brush—brushes match—matches
3. If the noun ends in -y
preceded by a consonant, -у
is changed into -i before -es.
army — armies
lady — ladies
In proper names, however, adding the ending -s to the singular forms the plural: Mary, Marys. Note.
If the final -y
is preceded by a vowel, adding -s to the singular forms the plural.
day — days monkey — monkeys
play—plays toy —toys
key — keys boy — boys
4. If the noun ends in -o
preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally formed by adding -es.
Only a few nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant form the plural in -s.
cargo — cargoes hero — heroes
Potato — potatoes echo — echoes But
: piano -—pianos
photo — photos
All nouns ending in -o preceded by a vowel form the plural in -s and not in -es.
cuckoo — cuckoos
portfolio — portfolios
There are a few nouns ending in -o which form the plural both in -s and -es:
mosquito — mosquitos or
5. With certain nouns the final voiceless consonants are changed into the corresponding voiced consonants when the noun takes the plural form.
(a) The following nouns ending in -f (in some cases followed by a mute e) change it into v
(both in spelling and pronunciation) in the plural:
wife — wives thief — thieves
knife —knives calf—calves
life —lives half —halves
sheaf — sheaves shelf — shelves
leaf — leaves wolf — wolves
self - selves loaf - loaves
There are some nouns ending in - f
which have two forms in the plural:
Other nouns ending in -f or -fe add -s in the plural in the ordinary way:
cliff – cliffs
handkerchief - handkerchiefs
II. The plural forms of some nouns are survivals of earlier formations.
1. There are seven nouns, which form the plural by changing the root vowel:
man — men goose — geese
woman — women mouse — mice
foot —feet louse—-lice
tooth — teeth
2. There are two nouns, which form the plural in -en:
ox — oxen
The noun brother
has, beside its usual plural form brothers,
another plural form brethren,
which is hardly ever used in colloquial language. It belongs to the elevated style and denotes people of the same creed and not relationship.
The noun cow
has, beside its usual plural form cows,
has the plural kine,
which sometimes occurs in poetry.
In some nouns the plural form does not differ from the singular: deer, sheep, swine, trout etc.
III. Some words borrowed from Latin or Greek keep their Latin or Greek plural forms: e.g. phenomenon - phenomena, datum – data…
IV. In compound nouns the plural is formed in different ways.
1. As a rule a compound noun forms the plural by adding -s
to the headword:
editor-in-chief — editors-in-chief
brother-in-law — brothers-in-law
looker-on — lookers-on
2. In some compound nouns the final element takes the plural form:
lady-bird — lady-birds
3. If there is no noun-stem in the compound, -s
is added to the last element:
4. When compound nouns are spelled as one word the last element is made plural
bookcase - bookcases
armchair – armchairs
5. If the first words of the compound nouns are nouns man
or woman a
double plural is used
woman-teacher - women-teachers
man-servant - men-servants
V. Some nouns have only the plural form:
as scissors, trousers, spectacles, scales, eye-glasses, tongs, breeches, fetters.
2. Nouns, which have collective meaning (concrete or abstract):
Concrete: stairs, goods, eaves, slums, outskirts, tropics, memoirs, victuals (провизия), supplies, clothes, sweepings, slops (помои), preserves (консервы).
(b) Collective nouns such as cattle
, police etc
are always used as plurals (without s-inflexion).
Abstract: holidays, tidings, goings-on (поступки), beginnings (also beginning), earnings, wages, contents.
3. In some nouns the final -s loses the meaning of the plural inflexion and the noun is treated as a singular. This is the case with the names of sciences and occupations in -ics:
Mathematics, phonetics, optics, which are usually considered as singular: Phonetics
is the science of sounds.
VI. Some nouns have only the singular form:
Names of materials: water, milk, wine, snow, bread, air etc.
Collective nouns: foliage, leafage, shrubbery, brushwood, linen, machinery, furniture, money, youth.
: The noun “people”
in the meaning of люди
is always plural.
The noun “people”
in the meaning of народ
has both numbers (a people - народ, peoples - народы)
Defending of peace is the cause of all peoples
of the world.
Abstract nouns: friendship, joy, patriotism, love, kindness, weather, courage, information, progress, news, advice, knowledge etc.
A number of nouns in English may through a change or variation of meaning acquire the forms of both numbers, singular and plural (and thus become countable). This is found in the following cases:
The noun “hair” is used in the singular (волосы);
The noun “hairs” is used only with the meaning of a few separate hairs (волосок, волоски).
Nouns fruit and fish are used in the singular. Plural forms fruits and fishes denote different kinds of fruit and fish
The noun penny (пенс) has two plural forms:
- if a sum of money is meant; and pennies
- when we speak about coins.
VIII. Nouns works
(завод, заводы) and means
(средство, средства) are used both in the singular and in the plural.
Case is the form of the noun (or pronoun) built up by means of inflexion, which indicates the relations of the noun (or pronoun) to the other words in the sentence.
The noun in Modern English has two cases: the common case
and the genitive case
. The Common Case
The common case in English is characterized by the zero-inflexion: a girl, a child, a garden, a tree etc.
The common case falls under: the nominative case
and the objective case.
A noun in the nominative case can be used as a subject
or a predicative
of the sentence:
(SUBJECT) is a student
The noun, which follows the predicate verb, is usually the direct object
The old woman… lifted the child
(DIRECT OBJECT)… (Galsworthy)
Placed between the transitive verb and its direct object the noun is the indirect object:
I wish Jane (
INDIRECT OBJECT) success with all my heart. (Austin)
Preceded by a preposition the noun may be a prepositional indirect object
or an adverbial modifier
of place or direction:
I hand the first book to my mother (
Paul went… to the orchard
(ADVERBIAL MODIFIER). (Lawrence) The Genitive (Possessive) Case
The possessive case represents in Modern English the Old English genitive case but it is much narrower in its meaning and function. In Modern English the use of the possessive case is restricted chiefly to nouns denoting living beings and its syntactical function is exclusively that of an attribute:
The Blind Girl, greatly agitated, rose, and led the Carrier’s
With nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions the possessive case relation is rendered in English by of
-phrase (which then is an equivalent of the possessive case):
…the first light of the
crept round the edges of the blinds
. (Shaw) The door of his room
was open… (Galsworthy)
1. The possessive case
is formed by adding -'s
(the apostrophe s) to the noun in the singular and only ' (the apostrophe)-to plural forms ending in -s.
singular: a girl's
plural: a girls'
school Note 1.
Nouns forming the plural by changing the root vowel take the apostrophe both in the singular and in the plural:
singular: a man's
hats Note 2.
Nouns ending in -s
form the genitive case in two ways: Dickens' novels, Dickens's novels. Note 3.
Sometimes the apostrophe s may refer to a whole group of words (the group-genitive):
This is Jane and Mary's
The last word of the group need not even be a noun:
I shall be back in an hour or two's
As to its use the genitive case falls under:
The Dependent Genitive (Possessive)
The Absolute Genitive (Possessive)
The Dependent Genitive (Possessive) is used with the noun it modifies and comes before it.
The Absolute Genitive (Possessive) may be used without any noun or be separated from the noun it modifies. A. The Dependent Genitive.
1. The chief meaning of the genitive (possessive) case is that of possession:
… a young man and a girl came out of the solicitor's
He stayed at Fanny's
2. Very close to the meaning of possession is that of a part to a whole:
A faint smile had come on Victorine's
face - she was adding up
the money she might earn. (Galsworthy)
3. The Dependent Genitive (Possessive) may express the doer of an action (the so-called subjective genitive) or show that some person is the object of the action (the so-called objective genitive):
It was Tom's
step, then, that Maggie heard on the steps. (Eliot)
4. The noun in the genitive (possessive) case may denote qualitative relations:
He looked ever so much smarter in his new officer's
the little blue chevron... (Aldington)
The genitive (possessive) case of nouns expressing time, distance and weight is widely used.
From the depot he was sent to the officers' training camp with two days'
The genitive (possessive) case is used in some set expressions: for heaven's (God's) sake; to one's heart's delight; at one's wit's end; a stone's throw); a hair's breadth
When Saturday came round I was at my wit’s
The genitive (possessive) case is often used with the nouns town, city, country, river, water, ocean, wind, world
And the wind’s
rustle was so gentle…(Galsworthy) B. The Absolute Genitive.
1. The Absolute Genitive may be used anaphorically. If the noun, which is modified by the possessive case, has already been mentioned and is clear from the context, it may be omitted.
Mrs. Moss's face bore a faded resemblance to her brother's
The face Michael drew began by being Victorine's
and ended by being Fleur's. (Galsworthy.)
2. The Absolute Genitive may have local meaning: the stationer's, the baker's, the tobacconist's, my uncle's
On her way home she usually bought a slice of honey-cake at the baker's. (Mansfield)
The Absolute Genitive may be introduced by the preposition of.
She is a relation of the Colonel's
. (Austen) 5.
According to their morphological composition we distinguish simple, derivative
nouns are nouns, which have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: chair, table, room, map, fish, work etc.
nouns are nouns, which have derivative elements (prefixes or suffixes or both): reader, sailor, blackness, childhood, misconduct, inexperience etc. 3. Compound
nouns are nouns built from two or more stems. Compound nouns often have one stress. The meaning of a compound often differs from the meanings of its elements. The main types of compound nouns are as follows:
The Classification of nouns.
noun-stem + noun-stem: apple-tree, snowball;
adjective-stem + noun-stem: blackbird, bluebell;
verb-stem + noun-stem: pickpocket; the stem of a gerund or of a participle may be the first component of a compound noun: dining room, reading-hall, dancing-girl.
Nouns fall under two classes:
A. Proper nouns
Proper nouns; (B) Common nouns.
are individual names given to separate persons or things. As regards their meaning proper nouns may be personal names, (Mary, Peter, Shakespeare),
geographical names (Moscow, London, the Caucasus),
the names of the months and of the days of the week (February, Monday)
, names of ships, hotels, clubs etc.
A large number of nouns now proper were originally common nouns (Brown, Smith, Mason). B
. Common nouns
are names that can be applied to any individual of a class of persons or things (e.g. man, dog, book),
collections of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit (e. g. peasantry, family),
materials (e. g. snow, iron, cotton)
or abstract notions (e.g. kindness, development).
Thus there are different groups of common nouns:
1) class nouns
2) collective nouns
3) nouns of material
4) abstract nouns
Class nouns denote persons or things belonging to a class. They are countable and have two numbers: singular and plural. They are generally used with an article.
He goes to the part of the town where the shops
are. (Lessing) 2. Collective nouns
denote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. Collective nouns fall under the following groups:
Nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: foliage, machinery.
not restful, that green foliage
Nouns, which are singular in form though plural in meaning: police, poultry, cattle, people, gentry etc. They are usually called nouns of multitude. When the subject of the sentence is a noun of multitude the verb used as predicate is in the plural:
I had no idea the police were
so devilishly prudent… (Shaw)
(c) Nouns that may be both singular and plural: family, crowd, fleet, nation etc.
We can think of a number of crowds, fleets or different nations as well as of a single crowd, fleet, etc.
A small crowd
is lined up to see the guests arrive. (Shaw)
Nouns of material denote material: iron, gold, paper, tea, water. They are uncountable and are generally used without any article.
There was coffee
still in the urn. (Wells) 4. Abstract nouns
denote some quality, state, action or idea: kindness, sadness, fight etc.
They are usually uncountable, though some of them may be countable (e. g. idea, hour).
It's these people with fixed ideas. (Galsworthy)
Abstract nouns may change their meaning and become class nouns. This change is marked by the use of the article and of the plural number:
beauty - a beauty - beauties
sight - a sight - sights
He was responsive to beauty
and here was cause to respond. (London)
noun. The use of the indefinite article with class nouns.
Class nouns are used with the indefinite article:
1. When the speaker presents the object expressed by the noun as belonging to a certain class. In this case the indefinite article has the meaning of “какой-нибудь, какой-то, один” (in the meaning of «некий»).
She has a
watch of her own.
In the plural no article is used in this case. If the idea of number is implied the noun is preceded by the pronoun some.
liked the room because there were flowers in it.
"I have brought you some
flowers..." "I hate to wear flowers." (Voynich)
2. With a predicative noun, when the speaker states that the object denoted by the noun belongs to a certain class.
Miss Sharp's father was an
3. When the noun is used in a general sense. What is said of one representative of a class can be applied to all the representatives of the class. The article has the meaning of “every”. A
drowning man catches at a
In the plural neither the article nor the pronoun some
Real friends should have everything in common. (Wilde)
4. There are cases when the indefinite article preserves its old original meaning of “one”. A
stitch in time saves nine.
He had hardly spoken a
word since they left Richard’s door ... (Voynich)
This meaning is generally found with:
(a) Nouns denoting time, measure and weight. A
week or two passed. (Ch. Bronte)
(b) The numerals hundred, thousand, million
and the nouns dozen, score.
He seems to have half a
dozen languages at his fingertips. (Voynich)
Class nouns are used with the definite article:
When the noun denotes an object or objects which the speaker singles out from all the objects of a given class. An object is singled out in the following cases:
(a) When the speaker and the hearer know what particular object is meant. No special indication is necessary.
How did you like the
. It should be borne in mind that there is a difference between knowing what object is spoken about and knowing the object itself.
I do not care to speak to the
girl. I have never seen her.
Won't you speak to her? B.
But I do not know the
2. When the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the moon, the universe)
or a class. The
sun was getting warmer. (Abrahams) The
bourgeoisie is cowardly. (London)
With nouns used in a generic sense.
A noun used in a generic sense denotes a genus taken as a whole, a thing taken as a type, a genre. The
tiger has always had the reputation of being a man-eater. The
telephone was invented in the 19th century.
The definite article is used when a noun is modified by an attribute, which shows that a particular object is meant i. e. by an attribute, which might be called a