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Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос


Dmitry Ivanovich Mendcleyev
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev is а famous Russian chemist. Не is best known for his development of the periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements. This table displays that elements' properties are changed periodically when they are arranged according to atomic weight.

Mendeleyev was born in 1834 in Tobolsk, Siberia. Не studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg. Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg and became Professor of Chemistry at the Technical Institute in 1863. Не became Professor of General Chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866. Mendeleyev was а well- known teacher, and, because there was по good textbook in chemistry at that time, he wrote the two-volume «Principles of Chemistry» which became а classic textbook in chemistry.

In this book Mendeleyev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published his first version of his periodic table of elements. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gaps for elements that were not known at that time. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium were discovered.

Mendeleyev investigated the chemical theory of solution. Не found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka is 40%. Не also investigated the thermal expansion of liquids and the nature of petroleum.

In 1893 he became director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg and held this position until his death in 1907.

Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова


Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос

FAMOUS SCIENTISTS


Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was а famous Russian writer, chemist, and astronomer who made а lot in literature and science.

Lomonosov was born on November 19, 1711, in Denisovka (now Lomonosov), near Archangelsk, and studied at the University of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. After studying in Germany at the Universities of Marburg and Freiberg, Lomonosov returned to St. Petersburg in 1745 to teach chemistry and built а teaching and research laboratory there four years later.

Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science. Не was an innovator in many fields. As а scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. Не regarded heat as а form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to observe the atmosphere of Venus during а solar transit.

Interested in the development of Russian education, Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University in 1755, and in the same year wrote .а grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old

Church Slavonic with modem language. In 1760 he published the first history of Russia. Не also revived the art of Russian mosaic and built а mosaic and coloured-glass factory. Most of his achievements, however, were unknown outside Russia. Не died in St. Petersburg on April 15,1765.

Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос
FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE АХD ENGINEERING

Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was а well-known aircraft engineer and manufacturer.

Sikorsky was born in 1889 in Kiev, in the Ukraine, and got his education at the naval college in St. Petersburg, and later in Kiev and Paris. Не was the first to make experiments in helicopter design. In 1913 he designed, built, and flew the first successful aeroplane. Later he built military aircrafts for Russia and France.

In 1919 Sikorsky moved to the United States and later helped to organize an aircraft company that produced а series of multiengine flying boats for commercial service. Sikorsky became an American citizen in 1928. In the late 1930s he returned to developing helicopters and produced the first successful helicopter in the west. Helicopters designed by Sikorsky were used mostly by the US Army Air Forces during World War II. Не died in 1972 at the age of 83.

Tupolev Andrey Nikolayevich, famous aircraft designer, was born in! 888. Не graduated frот the Moscow Higher Technical School, where he designed the first Russian wind tunnel. Не helped to found the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute in 1918 and later worked as the head of its design bureau. During, his career he directed the design of more than 100 military and commercial aircraft, including the TU-2 and TU-4 bombers used in the World War II. In 1955 he designed the TU-104, the first passenger jet airliner. His TU-144 supersonic jet liner began its commercial passenger flights in 1977.

Заведующий кафедрой


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____________Т.М.Рогожникова


Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос

“METALS”

Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy .

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them а crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of metals depend on the size shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, а metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to а риге metal. This is called аlloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

A11 metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when desiring for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical рrосеssеs. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such а» lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working а metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds. but special conditions are required for metals that react wity air.

Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос


MACH I NE — TOO LS”

Machine-tools are used to shape metals and other materials. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Most machine-tools are now electrically driven. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and тоге accurate than hand tools: they were an important element in the development of mass-production processes, as they allowed individual parts to be made in large numbers so as to be interchangeable.

All machine-tools have facilities for holding both the workpiece and the tool, and for accurately controlling the movement of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat, and use cooling fluids (usually а mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication.

Machine-tools usually work materials mechanically but other machining methods have been developed lately. They include chemical machining, spark erosion to machine very hard materials to any shape by means о1 а continuous high-voltage spark (discharge) between an electrode and а workpiece. Other machining methods include drilling using ultrasound, and cutting by means of а laser beam. Numerical control of machine-tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made it possible for complete systems of machine-tools to be used flexibly for the manufacture of а range of products.


Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос
«DRANWNIG»

Drawing consists of pulling metal through а die. One type is wire drawing. Тhе diameter reduction that can be achieved in one die is-limited, but several dies m series can be used to get the desired reduction.

Sheet metal forming


Sheet metal forming (штамповка листового металла} is widely used when parts of certain shape аnd size are needed. It includes forming, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming is that the thickness of the sheet changes little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing is а cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

Each of these processes may be used alone, but often аll three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from а flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over а lower die. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing forming operation (штамповку}, and finally the edges are sheared off give the final dimensions.

Forging

Forging is the shaping of а piece of metal by pushing vмй ореп or closed dies. It is usually done hot in order to reduce the required force and increase the metal's plasticity.

Open-die forging is ussua11у done by hammering a part between two fat faces. It is used to make parts that are too big to be formed in а closed die or in cases where only а few parts are to be made. The earliest forging machines lied а large hammer that was then dropped on the workpiece but nosy air or sham hammers are used. since they allow greater control over the force and the rate of forming. The part is shaped by moving or turning it between blows.

Closed-die forcing is the shaping of hot metal within the walls of two dies that соте together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The process starts with а rod or bar cut to the length needed to all the die. Since large, complex shapes and large strains are involved, general dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape. With closed dies, parts can be made to close toletances sо that little finish machining is required.


Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос
”METHODS OF STEEL HEAT TREATMENT”

Quenching is а heat treatment when metal at а high temperature is rapidly cooled by immersion in water or oil. Quenching makes steel harder and more brittle, with small grains structure.

Tempering is а heat treatment applied to steel and certain alloys. Hardened steel after quenching from а high temperature is too hard and brittle for many applications and is also brittle. Tempering, that is re-heating to an intermediate temperature and cooling slowly, reduces this hardness and brittleness. Tempering temperatures depend on the composition of the steel but are frequently between 100 and 650 'С.'Higher temperatures usually give а softer, tougher product. "Thе colour of the oxide film produced on the surface of the heated metal often serves as the indicator of its temperature.

Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос
"STEEL"

The most important metal in industry is iron and its alloy — steel. Steel is an alloy of rоn and carbon. It is strong and stiff, but corrodes easily through rusting, although stainless and other special steels resist corrosion. The amount of carbon in а steel influences its properties considerably. Steels of low carbon content (mild steels) are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. Medium-carbon steels containing from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. Both mild and medium-carbon steels are suitable for forging and welding. High-carbon steels contain from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon, are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs.'| Tool steel, also called silver steel, contains about 1 per cent carbon and is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

The inclusion of other elements affects the properties of the steel. Manganese gives extra strength and toughness. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores or electromagnets because it has large grains acting like small magnets. The addition of chromium gives extra strength and corrosion resistance, so we can get rust-proof steels. Heating in the presence of carbon or nitrogen-rich materials is used to form а hard surface on steel (case-hardening). High-speed steels, which are extremely important in machine-tools, contain chromium and tungsten plus smaller amounts of vanadium, molybdenum and other metals.


Заведующий кафедрой


иностранных языков

____________Т.М.Рогожникова

Уфимский государственный Кафедра иностранных


авиационный технический университет языков

Экзаменационный билет




Специальность Вопрос

«Mechanical Properties of Matеrials»

Density (specific weight) is the amount of mаss in а unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic metre. The density of wаtеr is 1000 kg/ m3 but most materials have а higher density and sink in water. Aluminium alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/m3 аге considerably less dense than steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg/m3. .Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

Stiffness (rigidity) is а measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is а measure of the resistance to simple sketching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when а rigid structure is to be made.

Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that а material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/m2, but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which а material first deforms plastically. For а metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have а higher strength in compression than in tension.

Ductility is the ability of а material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.

Заведующий кафедрой


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____________Т.М.Рогожникова

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