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Kunatenko Y. English
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Functions

Examples

Subject

To know him is to trust him.

It is difficult to translate this text.

Predicative

Our aim is to master English.

What I want is to be left alone.

Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate

We must stay at home.

We decided to work together.

Object

He asked me to wait.

He promised to come in time.

Attribute

He is always the first to come.

The article to be translated is on the table.

Adverbial Modifier

I have come here to help you.

The problem is too complicated to be solved at once.

REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES

A. VERBS FOLLOWED IMMEDIATELY BY AN INFINITIVE

1. afford

2. agree

3. appear

4. arrange

5. ask

6. beg

7. care

8. claim

9. consent

10. decide

11. demand

12. deserve

13. expect

14. fail

15. forget

16. hesitate

17. hope

18. learn

19. manage

20. mean

21. need

22. offer

23. plan

24. prepare

25. pretend

26. promise

27. refuse

28. regret

29. remember

30. seem

31. struggle

32. swear

  1. threaten

  2. volunteer

  3. wait

36. want

37. wish

I can’t afford to buy it.

They agreed to help us.

She appears to be tired.

I’ll arrange to meet you at the airport.

He asked to come with us.

He begged to come with us.

I don’t care to see that show.

She claims to know a famous movie star.

She finally consented to marry him.

I have decided to leave on Monday.

I demand to know who is responsible.

She deserves to win the prize.

I expect to enter graduate school next year.

She failed to return the book to the library in time. I forgot to mail the letter.

Don’t hesitate to ask for my help.

Jack hopes to arrive next week.

He learnt/learned to play the piano.

She managed to finish her work early.

I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings.

I need to have your opinion.

They offered to help us.

I am planning to have a party.

We prepared to welcome them.

He pretends not to understand.

I promise not to be late.

I refuse to believe his story.

I regret to tell you that you failed.

I remembered to lock the door.

That cat seems to be friendly.

I struggled to stay awake.

She swore to tell the truth.

She threatened to tell my parents.

He volunteered to help us.

I will wait to hear from you.

I want to tell you something.

She wishes to come with us.

B. VERBS FOLLOWED BY A (PRO)NOUN + AN INFINITIVE

1. advise

2. allow

3. ask

4. beg

5. cause

6. challenge

7. convince

8. dare

9. encourage

10. expect

11. forbid

12. force

13. hire

  1. instruct

15. invite

16. need

17. order

18. permit

19. persuade

20. remind

  1. require

22. teach

23. tell

24. urge

25. want

26. warn

She advised me to wait until tomorrow.

She allowed me to use her car.

I asked John to help us.

They begged us to come.

Her laziness caused her to fail.

She challenged me to race her to the corner.

I couldn’t convince him to accept our help.

He dared me to do better than he had done.

He encouraged me to try again.

I expect you to be in time.

I forbid you to tell him.

They forced him to tell the truth.

She hired a boy to mow the lawn.

He instructed them to be careful.

Harry invited the Johnsons to come to his party.

We needed Chris to help us figure out the solution.

The judge ordered me to pay a fine.

He permitted the children to stay up late.

I persuaded him to come for a visit.

She reminded me to lock the door.

Our teacher requires us to be in time.

My brother taught me to swim.

The doctor told me to take these pills.

I urged her to apply for the job.

I want you to be happy.

I warned you not to drive too fast.


The Prepositional Infinitive Complex

Subject

It is easy for you to say that.

For him to help his friends is quite natural.

Predicative

The question is for you to decide.

The best thing is for you to move to the South.

Object

I waited for him to speak.

Attribute

This is the book for you to read.

Adverbial modifier of purpose

He opened the doors of the car for us to get in.

I’ve brought two books for my son to read.

Adverbial modifier of result

The weather was too cold for the children to go out.

It was too dark for her to see him.

THE Objective Infinitive complex

is used after

the verbs

denoting

a) perceptions

of senses*:

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

I saw him get off the bus.

Did you hear her sing?

She felt her voice tremble.

I watch her enter the shop.

We observe the direction constantly change.

Nobody noticed him come in.




b) wish,
intention,
emotions:

to want

to wish

to like

to dislike

to hate

to intend should/would like

I want you to help me.

He wishes the work to be done at once.

He likes dinner to be in time. I dislike you to say such words.

I hate you to talk like that.

He intended me to go with him.

I should like you to stay here.




c) mental

activity:

to consider

to believe

to think

to find

to know

to expect to suppose

I consider him to be right.

I believe her to be a good teacher.

We thought him to be sleeping.

We find this value to be accurate enough.

I know him to have said that.

We expected her to return.

I suppose him to be about fifty.




d) order,

request,

permission,

advice,
compulsion:

to order

to ask

to request

to allow

to advise

to recommend

to cause

to force

get

to make*

to let*

He ordered the children to stop talking.

I asked Tom to help me.

He requested the matter to be kept secret.

She doesn’t allow anyone to smoke.

She advised me to tell the police about it.

I wouldn’t recommend you to stay here.

Her laziness caused her to fail.

He forced me to go there.

I got him to repair my car.

What makes you think so?

Let me go.

*The verbs to make, to let and the verbs of physical perception are followed by the infinitive without «to».

The Subjective Infinitive complex

is used with

a) the verbs

of speech:

to say

to report

to inform

She is said to write a new novel.

They are reported to have left London.

He was informed to have arrived in Kyiv.

verbs denoting: b) mental

activity:

to consider

to believe

to think

to find

to know

to expect

to suppose

He is considered to be a good speaker.

He is believed to know English.

He was thought to have gone.

They are found to be unfit for service.

History is known to repeat itself.

She is expected to come any minute.

He is supposed to know these things.

c) perceptions

of senses

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

He was seen to cross the street.

She was heard to mention your name.

She was felt to be suffering.

He was watched to dance in the hall.

The woman was observed to follow him.

He was noticed to unlock the door.

d) order,

request,

permission,

advice,

compulsion:

to order

to ask

to allow

to advise

to force

to make

They were ordered to go to bed.

She was asked to come on Monday.

I wasn’t allowed to watch the film.

We were advised not to drink the water.

He was forced to give up this work.

He was made to repeat the rule.

e) with

the verbs

to seem

to appear

to happen

to chance

to prove

to turn out

The child seems to be asleep.

He appears to know a lot of things.

I happened to see him yesterday.

He chanced to have recognized me.

Your advice proved to be very useful.

He turned out to be a good friend.

f) with

the expressions:

to be likely

to be unlikely

to be sure

to be certain

They are likely to come here.

He is unlikely to come tomorrow.

He is sure to go hunting.

He is sure to ring you up.

The Participle

Form

Transitive verbs

Intransitive verbs

Active voice

Passive voice

Active voice

Participle I
(Present Participle)



writing



being written


going

Participle II
(Past Participle)






written


gone

Perfect Participle

having written

having been written

having gone

Seeing that I was late I hurried.
Be careful while crossing the street.
Being left alone I went on with my work.
She tried to calm the crying child.
Not knowing what to say he kept silent.

Participle I (Active and Passive)
denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb.

Having written the letter he went to post it.
Having finished their classes the students went home.

Perfect Participle (Active and Passive) denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.

Being asked for her opinion she blushed.
Having been shown the wrong direction he lost his way.

Perfect and Non-Perfect Participle (Passive) denotes a passive action.


Complexes with the Participle
THE Objective Participle complex


is used with

the verbs

denoting

a) sense

perceptions:



to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

I saw her walking along the street.

We heard him speaking in the next room.

She felt her hand trembling.

I watched the children playing in the garden. The teacher observed the students writing compositions.





b) wish and

mental

activity:



to want

to wish

to find

to leave

I want the letter posted at once.

I wish your dreams realized.

When I returned I found her gone.

He left his work unfinished.




to have

to get

She had her dress made here.

I must have my hair cut.

He will have his coat cleaned.

She must have her hair done.

Have you got your car repaired?

After these verbs only Past Participle is used. It denotes an action performed by someone else for the benefit of the person expressed by the subject.


THE subjective Participle complex

is used with

the verbs

denoting

sense

perceptions:

to see

to hear

to watch

to notice

to consider

She was seen walking along the street..

Two people were heard quarelling.

They were watched playing in the garden.

He was noticed entering the office.

The work was considered finished.


THE absolute Participle complex

The rain having stopped, we went home.

The day being fine, she went for a walk.

Time permitting, we’ll go to the forest.

In this complex Participle has its own subject expressed by a noun in the Common Case or a personal pronoun in the Nominative case.




Functions

Examples

Complex Subject

(The Subjective Participle complex)

They were heard speaking in a lively manner.

He was seen surrounded by a group of students.

He was noticed entering the library.

Complex Object

(The Objective Participle complex)

I saw the workers packing the goods.

They watched the car being repaired.

They want the goods shipped on Monday.

Attribute

The cars being produced at our plant are very good.

Adverbial Modifier

Walking in the park, he met his old friend.

The Absolute Participle complex

The letter being written, I went to post it.

He being tired, I decided not to disturb him.


The Gerund. Forms and Functions

Gerund

Active

Passive

Uses



Indefinite




reading




being read


The action expressed by the gerund:

a) is simultaneous with that expressed by

the finite verb.

b) doesn’t refer to any particular time.

She likes reading.

She likes being read.


Perfect



having read



having been read


The action expressed by the gerund precedes that expressed by the finite verb.

Thank you for having helped me.

I remember having been asked this question.




Functions

Examples

Subject

Reading books is useful.

Smoking is harmful.

Reading love stories made her cry.

Predicative

His hobby is collecting stamps.

The main thing is getting there in time.

Seeing is believing.

Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate

She went on reading.

She stopped smoking.

Direct Object

I couldn’t avoid speaking to her.

The film is worth seeing.

I don’t mind waiting.

Prepositional Object

I am fond of reading.

He insisted on doing the work himself.

I don’t like his habit of making people wait.

Attribute

All liked the idea of going to the country.

I have no intention of discussing this question.

There are different ways of solving this problem.

Adverbial Modifier

On entering the room he came up to me.

He left the room without saying a word.

Excuse me for being so late.

REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS

1. admit

2. advise

3. anticipate

4. appreciate

5. avoid

6. complete

7. consider

8. delay

9. deny

10. discuss

11. dislike

12. enjoy

13. finish

14. forget

15. can’t help

16. keep

17. mention

18. mind

19. miss

20. postpone

21. practise

22. quit

23. recall

24. recollect

25. recommend

26. regret

27. remember

28. resent

29. resist

30. risk

31. stop

32. suggest

33. tolerate

34. understand

He admitted stealing the money.

She advised waiting until tomorrow.

I anticipate having a good time on vacation.

I appreciated hearing from them.

He avoided answering my question.

I finally completed writing my term paper.

I will consider going with you.

He delayed leaving for school.

She denied committing the crime.

They discussed opening a new business.

I dislike driving long distances.

We enjoyed visiting them.

She finished studying about ten. I’ll never forget visiting Napoleon’s tomb.

I can’t help worrying about it.

I keep hoping he will come.

She mentioned going to the cinema.

Would you mind helping me with this?

I miss being with my family.

Let’s postpone leaving until tomorrow.

The athlete practised throwing the ball.

He quitted trying to solve the problem.

I don’t recall meeting him before.

I don’t recollect meeting him before.

She recommended seeing the show.

I regret telling him my secret.

I can remember meeting him when I was a child.

I resent her interfering in my business.

I couldn’t resist eating the dessert.

She risks losing all of her money.

She stopped going to classes when she got sick.

She suggested going to the cinema.

She won’t tolerate cheating during an examination.

I don’t understand his leaving school.



the Gerundial complex

The Gerundial Complex consists of a noun (in the Common or Possessive Case) or a possessive pronoun and the gerund.

Functions

Examples

Complex Subject

Your coming here is very desirable.
It’s no use my telling you a lie.

Predicative

What annoys me is his being careless.

Direct Object

I don’t like his reading aloud.
Forgive my saying it.

Prepositional Object

I insist on your doing it.
Everything depends on your getting there in time.

Attribute

Everyone liked the idea of his joining us.
I don’t know the reason of your leaving.

Adverbial Modifier

He entered the room without his seeing it.



Conditional sentences

Type
of condition


if-clause

main clause

Examples

Type I
Real
condition
(refers to the future)


Present
Indefinite



Future Indefinite
can + Infinitive



If I have enough money,
I will/ can buy a car.


Type II Unreal condition
(refers to the present or future)


Present
Subjunctive II
(Past Indefinite)



would/could +
Infinitive



If I had enough money,
I would/could buy a car

Type III Unreal condition
(refers to the past)


Past
Subjunctive II
(Past Perfect)


would/could have
+ Past Participle



If I had had enough money, I would/could have bought a car.


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