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General Questions

Predicate or auxiliary verb

Sub-

ject

Part of

the Predicate

Object

Adverbial Modifiers


Short Answers
















Affirmative

Negative

Is

Do

Does

Did

Will

Are

Was

Can

he

you

she

it

he

you

Ann

you


take

live

rain

be living?

studying?
swim?


books

French?


at home?

here?

in Kyiv?

last night?

there?

in class?

Yes, he is.

Yes, I do.

Yes,she does

Yes, it did.

Yes, he will.

Yes, I am.

Yes, she was.

Yes, I can.

No, he isn't.

No, I don't.

No, she doesn't.

No, it didn't.

No, he won't.

No, I'm not.

No, she wasn't.

No, I can't.


Tag questionS

Jack can come, can't he?

Fred can't come, can he?

A tag question is a question added at the end of

a sentence. Speakers use tag questions chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek agreement.

Affirmative Sentence + Negative tag = Affirmative answer expected

Mary is here, isn't she? Yes, she is.

You like tea, don't you? Yes, I do.

They have left, haven't they? Yes, they have.

Negative Sentence + Affirmative tag = Negative answer expected

Mary isn't here, is she? No, she isn't.

You don't like tea, do you? No, I don't.

They haven't left, have they? No, they haven't.

This/That is your book, isn't it?

These/Those are yours, aren't they?

The tag pronoun for this/that = it

The tag pronoun for these/those = they

There is a meeting tonight, isn't there?

In sentences with there + be, there is used in the tag.

Everything is okay, isn't it?

Everyone took the test, didn't they?

Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns. They is usually used in a tag to refer to everyone, someone, everybody, somebody,no one, nobody.

Nothing is wrong, is it?

Nobody called on the phone, did they?

You've never been there, have you?

Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags.

I am supposed to be here, am I not?

I am supposed to be here, aren't I?

am I not? is formal English.

aren't I? is common in spoken English.

Question words

When

When did they arrive?

When will you come?

Yesterday.

Next Monday.

When is used to ask questions about time.


Where

Where is she?

Where can I find a pen?

At home.

In that drawer.

Where is used to ask questions about place.


Why

Why did he leave early?

Why aren't you coming with us?

Because he's ill.

I'm tired.

Why is used to ask questions about reason.



How

How did you come to school?

How does he drive?

By bus.
Carefully.

How generally asks about manner.

How much money does it cost?

How many people came?

Ten dollars.
Fifteen.

How is used with much and many.

How old are you?

How cold is it?

How soon can you get there?

How fast were you driving?

How long has he been here?

How often do you write home?

How far is it to Paris from here?

Eighteen.

Ten below zero.

In ten minutes.
50 miles an hour.
Two years.
Every week.
500 miles.

How is also used with adjectives and adverbs.

How long asks about length of time.

How often asks about frequency.
How far asks about distance.


More questions with How

Question

Answer




a) How do you spell «coming»? c-o-m-i-n-g.

b) How do you say «yes» in Japanese? Hai.

c) How do you say/pronounce this word?

To answer a): Spell the word.

To answer b): Say the word.

To answer c): Pronounce the word.

d) How are getting along? Great.

e) How are you doing? Fine.

f) How's it going? Okay.

So-so.

In d), e), and f): How is your life?

Is your life okay? Do you have any problems?

NOTE: f) is often used in greetings:

Hi, Bob. How's it going?

g) How do you feel? Terrific!

How are you feeling? Wonderful!

Great!

Fine.

Okay.

So-so.

A bit under

the weather.

Not so good.

Terrible!

Awful!

The questions in g) ask about health or about general
emotional state.

h) How do you do? How do you do?

How do you do? is used by both speakers when they are introduced to each other in a somewhat formal situation.


Who

Who can answer that question?

Who came to visit you?

I can.
Jane and Tom.

Who is used as the subject of a question.

It refers to people.

Who is coming to dinner tonight?

Who wants to come with me?


Ann and Tom.
We do.

Who is usually followed by

a singular verb even if

the speaker is asking about more than one person.


Whose

Whose book did you borrow?

Whose key is this? (Whose is this?)

David's.

It's mine.

Whose ask questions about possession.


What

What made you angry?

What went wrong?

His rudeness.

Everything.

What is used as the subject of

a question.

It refers to «things».

What do you need?

What did Alice buy?

What did he talk about?

About what did he talk? (formal)

I need a pencil.

A book.

His vacation.

What is also used as an object.

What kind of soup is that?

What kind of shoes did he buy?

It's bean soup.

Sandals.

What kind of asks about particular variety or type of something.

What did you do last night?

What is Mary doing?

I studied.

She is reading a book.

What + a form of do is used to ask questions about activities.

What countries did you visit?

What time did she come?

What colour is his hair?

Italy and Spain.
Seven o'clock.

Dark brown.

What may accompany a noun.

What is Tom like?
What is the weather like?

He's kind and friendly.

Hot and humid.

What + be like asks for

a general description of qualities.

What does Tom look like?
What does her house look like?

He is tall and has dark hair.

It's a large, red brick house.

What + look like asks for

a physical description.



Which

I have two pens.

Which pen do you want?

Which one do you want?

Which do you want?

Which book should I buy?

The blue one.
That one.


Which is used instead of what when a question concerns choosing from a definite, known quantity or group.


Which countries did he visit? What countries did he visit? Which class are you in?

What class are you in?

Paris and Canada.

This class.


In some cases, there is little difference in meaning between which and what when they accompany a noun.


SUMMARY CHART OF VERB TENSES

Active Voice





Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

Present

I write letters every week.

I am writing

a letter now.

I have written

a letter today.

I have been writing for an hour.


Past

I wrote this letter yesterday.

I was writing

a letter at

5 o'clock.

I had written all my letters by 9 o'clock.

I had been writing for an hour when you came.


Future

I shall write this letter tomorrow.

I shall be writing a letter at 5 o'clock tomorrow.

I shall have written all my letters by 9 clock tomorrow.

If you come at
7 I shall have been writing for an hour by that time.


Passive Voice





Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

Present

These letters are written (by me) every week.

A letter is being written (by me) now.

The letter has been written (by me) today.





Past

This letter was written yesterday.

This letter was being written at 5 o'clock.

By 9 o'clock all my letters had been written.





Future

This letter will be written tomorrow.





All my letters will have been written by
7 o'clock tomorrow.







Passive Voice

Present

1. Викладач пояснює новий

матеріал.

на кожному

уроці

1. The teacher explains new

material at every lesson.

2. Новий матеріал пояснюється викладачем.

на кожному

уроці

2. New material is explained

by the teacher at every lesson.

3. Викладач пояснює новий матеріал.

зараз

3. The teacher is explaining new material now.

4. Новий матеріал пояснюється викладачем.

зараз

4. New material is being explained by the teacher now.

5. Викладач пояснив новий матеріал.

на цьому тижні

5. The teacher has explained new material this week.

6. Новий матеріал був пояснений викладачем.

на цьому тижні

6. New material has been explained by the teacher this week.

7. Викладач пояснює новий матеріал.

уже 10 хв.

з 9 год. ранку

7. The teacher has been explaining new material for 10 minutes since 9 o'clock in the morning.

8. Новий матеріал пояснюється викладачем.

уже 10 хв.

з 9 год. ранку

8. New material has been explained by the teacher for 10 minutes since

9 o'clock in the morning.


Past

1. Викладач пояснив новий матеріал.

учора

1. The teacher explained new material yesterday.


2. Новий матеріал був пояснений викладачем.

учора

2. New material was explained by the teacher yesterday.


3. Викладач пояснював новий матеріал.

учора

о 10 годині

3. The teacher was explaining new material yesterday at 10 o'clock.

4. Новий матеріал

пояснювався викладачем.

учора

о 10 годині

4. New material was being explained by the teacher yesterday at 10 o'clock.

Future

1. Викладач пояснить новий матеріал.

завтра

1. The teacher will explain new material tomorrow.

2. Новий матеріал буде пояснений викладачем.

завтра

2. New material will be explained
by the teacher tomorrow.

3. Викладач пояснить новий матеріал.

завтра до кінця першого уроку

3. The teacher will have explained new material tomorrow by
the end of the first lesson.

4. Новий матеріал буде пояснений викладачем.

завтра до кінця першого уроку

4. New material will have been explained by the teacher tomorrow by the end of the first lesson.


MODAL VERBS

Can; could; to be able to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) ability;

capability

I can run fast.

I can help you.

I am able to help you.

I will be able to help you.

I could run fast when I was a child, but now I can't.

I was able to help you.

2) informal

permission

You can use my car tomorrow.





3) polite request

Can I borrow your pen? Could I borrow your pen?

Could you help me?




4) impossibility

(negative only)

That can't be true!

That couldn't be true!

That can't have been true!

That couldn't have been true!

5) suggestion


— I need help in math.

You could talk to your teacher.

You could have talked to your teacher.

6) less than
50% certainty

— Where is John?

He could be at home.

He could have been at home.

7) doubt;
astonishment
(interrogative)

Can she know Japanese?


Can he have done it?


May; might

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) polite request

May I borrow your pen? Might I borrow your pen?



2) formal permission

You may leave the room.



3) less than 50% certainty

— Where is John?
He may be at the library.
He might be at the library.

He may have been at the library.
He might have been at the library.



Must; be to; have to; have got to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) duty; obligation; strong necessity

I must go to class today.
I have to go to class today.
I have got to go to class today.

I had to go to class yesterday.


2) lack of necessity (negative)

I don't have to go to class today.

I didn't have to go
to class yesterday.

3) prohibition (negative)

You must not open that door.



4) 90% certainty

Mary isn't in class. She must be sick. (present only)

Mary must have been sick yesterday.

5) plan; agreement

We are to meet at nine.

We were to meet at nine.

6) order; instruction

You must go there at once.
You are to go there at once.



7) destiny
(past only)



He was never to see his wife again.



Should; ought to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) advisability;
desirability


I should study tonight.
I ought to study tonight.


I should have studied last night.
I ought to have studied last
night.

2) 90% certainty

She should do well on
the test.
She ought to do well on the test. (future only)

She should have done well on the test.
She ought to have done well on the test.



Shall

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) polite question
to make a suggestion

Shall I open the window?




2) future with «I» or
«we» as subject

I shall arrive at nine.
(will = more common)





Will; would

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) 100 % certainty

He will be here at nine.


He said he would be here at nine.

2) polite request

Will you please pass the salt?

Would you please pass

the salt?

Would you mind if I left early?



3) willingness

— The phone's ringing.

I'll get it.



4) preference

I would rather go to the park than stay home.

I would rather have gone to the park.



INDEFINITE PRONOUN «ONE»

Examples

Functions

One should always be polite.
How does one get to 5th Avenue from here?
One must keep one’s word.

one means any person, people in general.
The subject of an impersonal sentence. (usually not translated)

This book is more interesting than the one we read last week.
Here are two books. Which one would you like?

Any function for replacing a noun already mentioned.

One should take care of one’s health.
One should take care of his health.
One should take care of his or her health.

Notice the pronouns that may be used in the same sentence to refer back to one.


The PRONOUNs «both, either and neither»

Examples

Functions

Both these children are mine.

These children are both mine.

Both my children are boys.

They both accepted the invitation.

You are both right.

They have both been invited.

We must both go there.

Both is plural in meaning and applied only to two persons or things.



a) Take either book. I don’t mind which.

The news didn’t shock either of them.

Have you seen either of your parents

today?

b) You may go by either road.

The houses on either side were tall and

big.

Either refers to two persons or things and has two meanings.

a) one or the other of two;


  1. each of two; both.




Neither brother has been abroad.

We accepted neither offer.

Neither of the statements is true.

Neither means not the one nor the other.

Sequence of Tenses
Direct and Indirect Speech



If the main verb of the sentence is in the present, no change is made in the verb tense or modal in the object clause.



If the main verb of the sentence is in the past, the verb in the object clause is usually also in a past form.

He sais (that) he works hard.

He said (that) he worked hard.

He sais (that) he is working hard.

He said (that) he was working hard.

If the action of the object clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he worked hard.

He said (that) he had worked hard.

He sais (that) he was working hard.

He said (that) he had been working hard.

He sais (that) she has already left.

He said (that) she had already left.

If the action of the object clause precedes that of the principal clause, the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he will work hard.

He said (that) he would work hard.

He sais (that) he will have finished
the work by September.

He said (that) he would have finished the work by September.

He sais (that) he will be working hard
all day long.

He said (that) he would be working hard all day long.

If the action of the object clause follows that of the principal clause, the Future-
in-the-Past
or one of the other means of expressing future actions viewed from the past is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found
in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he is going to work hard.

He said (that) he was going to work hard.

He sais (that) he can work hard.

He said (that) he could work hard.

He sais (that) he may work hard.

He said (that) he might work hard.

He sais (that) he has to work hard.

He said (that) he had to work hard.

He sais (that) he must work hard.

He said (that) he had to work hard.

He sais (that) he should work hard.

He said (that) he should work hard.

He sais (that) he ought to work hard.

He said (that) he ought to work hard.

The rules of sequence of tenses cannot be observed with certain modal verbs which have only one form. (must, should, ought and need)





THE Infinitive

Infinitive

Active voice

Passive voice

Uses


Indefinite



to write

to come


to be written



the action is simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb.

He wants to write her about it.
He wants to be written about it.


Continuous



to be writing

to be coming






the action is temporary and not a usual one.

He may be writing a new novel.


Perfect


to have written
to have come

to have been written



the action precedes

that of the predicate.

I am glad to have written her about it.
I was surprised to have been written about it.


Perfect Continuous



to have been writing

to have been coming






the action began before the time indicated by

the predicate and is still going on.

He is said to have been writing this novel for 2 years already.
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