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n22.doc

U N I T 9


TOPIC: MARKETS and MARKET STRUCTURES

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: Modal Verbs and their Equivalents. Indefinite Pronoun: one

Indefinite-Personal Sentences


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

market, classify, influence, similar, pure, separate, real, raise;

b) stress the second syllable:

economist, according, condition, prevail, involve, compete, competitive, competitively, competitiveness, competitor, exactly, determine, exist, monopoly, monopolist, monopolize, degree, unique, depend, attract, except, imaginary;

c) stress the third syllable:

economic, economical, economically, economics, situation, competition, conversation, independent, independently, oligopoly.

Text A

Economists classify markets according to conditions that prevail in them. They ask questions like the following: How many supplies are there? How large are they? Do they have any influence over price? How much competition is there between firms? What kind of economic product is involved? Are all firms in the market selling exactly the same product, or simply similar one? Is it easy or difficult for new firms to enter the market? The answer to these questions helps to determine market structure, or the nature and degree of competition among firms operating in the same market. For example, one market may be highly competitive because a large number of firms produce similar products. Another may be less competitive because of fewer firms, or because the products made by each are different or unique.

In short, markets can be classified according to certain structural characteristics that are shared by most firms in the market. Economists have names for these different market structures: pure competition1, monopolistic competition2, oligopoly, and monopoly.

An important category of economic markets is pure competition. This is a market situation in which there are many independent and well-informed buyers and sellers of exactly the same economic products. Each buyer and seller acts independently. They depend on forces in the market to determine price. If they are not willing to accept this price, they do not have to do business.

To monopolize means to keep something for oneself3. A person who monopolized a conversation, for example, generally is trying to stand out from4 everyone else and thus attract attention5.

A situation much like this often exists in economic markets. For example, all the conditions of pure competition may be met except that the products for sale are not exactly the same. By making its product a little different, a firm may try to attract more customers and take over the economic market6. When this happens, the market situation is called monopolistic competition.

The one thing that separates monopolistic competition from pure competition is product differentiation7. The differences among the products may be real, or imaginary. If the seller can differentiate a product, the price may be raised a little above the market price, but not too much.

COMMENTS

1. pure competition — чиста конкуренцiя

2. monopolistic competition монополістична конкуренція

3. to keep something for oneself — затримати щось для себе

4. to stand out from — вiдiйти/вiддiлитися вiд

5. to attract attention — привертати увагу

6. to take over the economic market — змiнити економiчний ринок

7. product differentiation диференціація (індивідуалізація) продукції

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Name the word-building elements and the part of speech
of each word:

market — marketability — marketable — marketeer — marketer — marketing; differ — difference — different — differential — differentiate — differentiation — differentiability — differently; compete — competition — competitive — competitiveness — competitor; monopoly — monopolist — monopolistic — monopolize — monopolization.

II. Find equivalents:

1. to depend on smth

2. in short

3. to attract more customers

4. to stand out from smth

5. to prevail

6. a highly competitive market

7. pure competition

8. to have some influence over price

9. to enter the market

10. to keep smth for oneself

11. to take over the economic market

12. to meet the condition of pure competition

а. змiнити економiчний ринок

б. затримати щось для себе

в. входити в ринок

г. коротко кажучи

д. залежати вiд чогось

е. вiдiйти вiд чогось

є. чиста конкуренцiя

ж. впливати якимось чином на цiну з. переважати

и. залучити бiльше покупцiв

і. приймати умови чистої конкуренцiї ї. ринок із високим ступенем

конкуренцiї

III. Match the synonyms:

a customer, significant, to prevail, to attract smb’s attention, a supply, next, in accordance with smth, following, to draw smb’s attention, to be ready to do smth, to predominate, to determine price, a buyer, to meet the conditions of pure competition, to fix a price, to be willing to do smth, according to smth, important, a stock, to agree to the conditions of pure competition.

IV. Match the antonyms:

similarity, ordinary, easy, dependent, imaginary, to separate, difference, to attract smb, to accept, independent, difficult, buyer, unique, to reject, seller, to unite, real, to scare smb away/off.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Economists classify markets according ... conditions that prevail ... them. 2. The answer ... these questions helps to determine market structure, or the nature and degree ... competition ... firms operating ... the same market. 3. One market may be highly competitive because ... a large number ... firms produce similar ... products. 4. Pure competition is a market situation ... which there are many independent and well-informed buyers and sellers ... exactly the same economic products. 5. Buyers and sellers depend ... forces ... the market to determine price. 6. To monopolize means to keep something ... oneself. 7. By making its product a little different, a firm may try to attract more ... customers and take ... the economic market.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. Economists classify markets according ... . 2. They ask questions like the following ... . 3. The answer to these questions helps ... . 4. One market may be highly competitive because ... . 5. Another may be less competitive ... . 6. In short, markets can be classified according to ... . 7. Economists have names for these different market structures ... . 8. Pure competition is a market situation ... . 9. To monopolize means ... . 10. The one thing that separates monopolistic competition from pure competition is ... .

VII. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. monopoly

a. The process of creating uniqueness in a product.

2. oligopoly

b. A market dominated by a few large firms.

3. pure competition

c. A market in which there is only one seller.

4. monopolistic competition

d. Place where buyers and sellers come together.

5. product differentiation

e. The price at which supply exactly equals demand.

6. competition

f. A market situation in which there are many independent and well-informed buyers and sellers of exactly the same economic products.

7. market

g. The rivalry among buyers and sellers in

the purchase and sale of resources and products.

8. market price

h. A market in which many firms are selling similar (but not identical) products.


VIII. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. A competitive market

a. has many buyers and sellers.

b. is dominated by a few large firms.

c. is regulated by the government.

d. includes monopolies and oligopolies.

2. A market with a few large firms is called

a. a monopoly.

b. pure competition.

c. an oligopoly.

d. monopolistic competition.

3. Competition in the marketplace is important because it

a. limits the effects of supply and demand.

b. eliminates the profit motive.

c. gives producers the incentive to be efficient.

d. creates a market where producers can control prices.

4. The American government

a. is not involved in influencing markets.

b. regulates various aspects of business activity.

c. owns most US businesses.

d. does not produce any goods and services.

5. Which of the following best explains why certain industries are

dominated by large firms?

a. Large firms are always more efficient than small ones.

b. The American people have lost faith in the competitive market system.

c. Patent laws are easily ignored.

d. Only large firms can afford the necessary factories and equipment.
IX. Ask someone:

if markets can be classified according to certain structural characteristics that are shared by most firms in the market; each buyer or seller acts independently in the market; a firm may try to attract more customers and take over the economic market;

what questions economists ask; helps to determine market structure, or the nature and degree of competition among firms operating in the same market; is the difference between highly and less competitive market; names the economists have for different market structures; is pure competition; they depend on; «to monopolize» means; situation is called monopolistic competition; separates monopolistic competition from pure competition; may be the difference among the products;

when the price may be raised a little above the market price;

how economists classify markets.

X. Translate into English:

1. Вiдповiдь на певний ряд питань допомагає визначити ринкову структуру або її природу та ступiнь конкуренцiї мiж фiрмами, якi дiють на одному й тому ж ринку. 2. До ринкових структур належать: чиста конкуренцiя, монополiстична конкуренцiя, олiгополiя та монополiя.
3. Чиста конкуренцiя — це важлива категорiя економiчних ринкiв. 4. Кожен покупець чи продавець дiє на ринку незалежно. 5. Вони залежать вiд тих сил на ринку, якi визначають цiну. 6. Урiзноманiт­нюючи трохи свiй товар, фiрма може намагатися залучити бiльше по­купцiв i змiнити економiчний ринок. 7. Коли таке трапляється, ринкова ситуацiя називається монополicтичною конкуренцiєю.



  1. Retell the text A using the following words and

word-combinations:

to prevail; to enter the market; a highly competitive market; to determine market structure; in short; to depend on forces in the market; pure competition; monopolisic competition; oligopoly; monopoly; to determine price; to keep smth for oneself; to accept the price; to monopolize; to stand out from smth; to attract attention; to attract more customers; to take over the economic market; product differentiation; to do business; to have some influence over price.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

gather, marketplace, simply, buyer, seller, influence, perfect, fluctuate, indicate, current, contact, fixed, agent;

b) stress the second syllable:

extension, location, condition, permit, communicate, completely, prevail, affect, accept, inevitably, commodity, consumer.
Text B

The term market, as used by economists, is an extension of the ancient idea of a market as a place where people gather to buy and sell goods. In former days part of a town was kept as the market or marketplace, and people would travel many kilometres on special market-days in order to buy and sell various commodities.

Today, however, markets such as the world sugar market, the gold market1 and the cotton market do not need to have any fixed geographical location. Such a market is simply a set of conditions permitting buyers and sellers to work together.

In a free market2, competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity, and among those who wish to buy that commodity. Such competition influences the prices prevailing in the market. Prices inevitably fluctuate, and such fluctuations are also affected by current supply and demand.

Whenever people who are willing to sell a commodity contact people who are willing to buy it, a market for that commodity is created. Buyers and sellers may meet in person, or they may communicate in some other way: by telephone or through their agents. In a perfect market, communications are easy, buyers and sellers are numerous and competition is completely free. In a perfect market there can be only one price for any given commodity: the lowest price which sellers will accept and the highest which consumers will pay. There are, however, no really perfect markets, and each commodity market3 is subject to special conditions. It can be said, however, that the price ruling in a market indicates the point where supply and demand meet.
COMMENTS

1. gold market ринок золота

2. free market — ринок, вільний від обмежень; вільна торгівля

3. commodity market — ринок товарів; товарна біржа
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Use the correct word in the sentences. Change the form

of the words if necessary:

-vary

1. Conditions on that market are stable and don’t __________ very much from year to year. 2. It is often difficult to classify the ______ types of economic system in the world. 3. Because prices on that market fluctuate considerably from week to week, we say that they are __________ . 4. The managers of that company hope to increase the __________ of products which they offer for sale to the public. 5. There has been little ________ in price levels over the last five years. 6. That businessman handles a very ____________ selection of products, including bananas, toys, and cars.

-compete

1. Our firm is no longer __________ in world markets. 2. This company has better products than its ___________ . 3. A loss of ___________ is usually signalled by increasing imports and falling exports. 4. Oligopolies exist because it is difficult for _________ firms to enter the market.
5. ___________ is one of the cornerstones of free enterprise.

-monopolize

1. Don’t __________ our guest — there are others who would like to talk to her. 2. In some countries tobacco is a government __________ .
3. Imperfect competition includes both _____________ competition and oligopoly. 4. At the extreme of imperfect competition is the _______ — a single supplier who alone determines the price of a particular good.
II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

market; to buy and sell goods; in former days; marketplace; the world sugar market; various commodities; the gold market; the cotton market; fixed geographical location; competition; the prices prevailing in the market; perfect market; free market; supply and demand; commodity market.


  1. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the pattern:

Pattern: The term market is an extension of the ancient idea of

the marketplace. Economists use the term in a special way. The term market, as the term used by economists, is

an extension of the ancient idea of the marketplace. The term market, as used by economists, is an extension

of the ancient idea of the marketplace.

1. The term money refers not only to a means of exchange but also to a means of measuring the value of men’s labour. Economists understand the term in a special way. 2. The term labour means any work done for a known reward. Economists use the term in a special way. 3. The methods of controlling prices and wages will probably not succeed. The government described the methods in a special way. 4. The idea of a perfect market is a theoretical concept and not a practical reality. Economists present the idea in a special way. 5. The scheme for a new industrial complex will take fifteen years to complete.The planners discussed the scheme in a special way.

  1. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. The ancient idea of a geographically fixed marketplace has been extended to cover sets of conditions which permit buyers and sellers to work together. 2. A market for a commodity is created whenever buyers and sellers meet in person but not when they work through their agents. 3. Supply and demand inevitably affect prevailing prices. 4. The world cotton market is not located in any special place. 5. The competition between buyers of a commodity influences the prevailing prices. 6. Competition in a perfect market is conducted in a completely free way by numerous buyers and sellers enjoying easy communications. 7. The lowest price which buyers will offer is the only price in a perfect market. 8. Each commodity market is imperfect in some special way.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What was a market originally? 2. What is a modern market? 3. What does competition influence? 4. What three things cause prices to fluctuate? 5. When is a market created? 6. What three means are mentioned by which buyers and sellers can communicate if they don’t meet in person? 7. What price operates in a perfect market? 8. What does the ruling price indicate?

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

perfect, numerous, planning, government, cornering, operate, company, postal, limited, practice, transport, circumstance, ownership, legal, merger;

b) stress the second syllable:

although, available, monopoly, monopolize, distinguish, variety, control, commodity, authority, permit, inventor, producer, arrangement, comparatively, distinct, complete, canal, obtain, illegal, restrict.

Text C

Although in a perfect market1 competition is unrestricted and sellers are numerous, free competition2 and large numbers of sellers are not always available in the real world. In some markets there may only be one seller or a very limited number of sellers. Such a situation is called a monopoly, and may arise from a variety of different causes. It is possible to distinguish in practice four kinds of monopoly.

State planning and central control of the economy often mean that a state government has the monopoly of important goods and services. Some countries have state monopolies in basic commodities like steel and transport, while other countries have monopolies in such comparatively unimportant commodities as matches. Most national authorities monopolize the postal services within their borders.

A different kind of monopoly arises when a country, through geographical and geological circumstances, has control over major natural resources or important services, as for example with Canadian nickel and the Egyptian ownership of the Suez Canal. Such monopolies can be called natural monopolies3.

They are very different from legal monopolies, where the law of a country permits certain producers, authors and inventors a full monopoly over the sale of their own products.

These three types of monopoly are distinct from the sole trading opportunities which take place because certain companies have obtained complete control over particular commodities. This action is often called «cornering the market»4 and is illegal in many countries. In the USA anti-trust laws operate to restrict such activities, while in Britain the Monopolies Commission examines all special arrangements and mergers5 which might lead to undesirable monopolies.

COMMENTS

1. perfect market — досконалий (немонополістичний) ринок

2. free competition — вільна конкуренція

3. natural monopoly природна монополія

4. cornering the market — спекулятивне контролювання ринку

5. mergerамер. об’єднання, злиття (підприємств тощо)
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find single words in the text for which the following words could

be substituted:

though, unlimited, many, restricted, appear, reasons, separate out, types, essential, as, relatively, non-essential goods, frontiers, condition, main, allows, manufacturers, selling, categories, differ, commercial, have got, full, unlawful, serve, to limit, studies, amalgamations, unwanted.

II. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Free competition and large numbers of sellers are always available in the real world. 2. Monopoly describes a market in which there is only one seller or a very limited number of sellers. 3. In economic theory there are four kinds of monopoly. 4. States always monopolize important basic commodities. 5. Egyptian nickel is a good example of natural monopoly.
6. Cornering the market is quite legal in the USA. 7. The Monopolies Commission consider that it is undesirable to restrict business mergers.

III. Change the following sentences as in the pattern:

Pattern: In some markets there may only be one seller.

A situation like this is called a monopoly.

A situation of this kind is called a monopoly.

1. In some countries there are both private and public sectors. An economic system like this is known as a mixed economy. 2. In some countries production is a matter of private enterprise. A situation like this is called capitalism. 3. For some people investment in new business enterprises is not too great a risk. People like these sometimes make considerable profits but on other occasions can lose much of their capital. 4. In most markets it isn’t necessary for buyers and sellers to meet in particular localities. Markets like these are quite different from the marketplaces of ancient towns.


  1. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. Monopolies are permitted in public utilities because in these
industries


a. regulation is relatively easy.

b. competition might be harmful to the public interest.

c. utilities receive financial assistance from the government.

d. utilities are very large firms.

2. Which of the following firms will have the greatest freedom in

setting the price of its products?

a. One of three companies in an industry.

b. The only producer of a product with many substitutes.

c. The only producer of a product with no substitutes.

d. One of 300 firms in an industry.

3. A merger results when

a. two or more firms combine to form a single corporation.

b. a firm undergoes vast, internal expansion.

c. the stock of a corporation is traded on several stock exchanges.

d. a large firm goes out of business.

V. Punctuate the following passage. Provide capital letters,

commas, full stops, brackets, colons etc., where applicable:

monopolies and similar arrangements may be referred in britain to the monopolies commission between 1948 and 1966 the commission presented some twenty six reports the government in 1965 passed a special act called the monopolies and mergers act which reorganized and enlarged the monopolies commission it provides for the investigation of services and mergers especially newspaper mergers and improves and extends the governments powers for taking action the action of the government is based on the monopolies commissions reports

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a monopoly? 2. What are the first three kinds of monopoly?
3. What examples of important state monopolies are given? 4. What monopoly are Canadian nickel and the Suez Canal examples of? 5. What are certain inventors permitted by law to have? 6. What word in the last paragraph shows that the fourth type of monopoly is quite distinct from the other three? 7. What happens when certain companies obtain complete control over particular commodities? 8. What do the Americans call their anti-monopoly laws? 9. What does Britain use to restrict special arrangements?
COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. Round-table discussion. The question on the agenda is «Competition is one of the cornerstones of free enterprise».

You may include the following points in your discussion:



Use the table given below:


Characteristics of Economic Markets




Perfect
Competition


Monopolistic Competition

Oligopoly

Monopoly

Number
of Firms


Many independent firms. None able to control the market.

Many firms providing similar goods and services.

A few large firms providing similar goods and services.

A single large firm.

Control
over Price


None. Market determines price.

Influence limited by the availability of substitutes.

Often influenced by
a «price leader».

Much control.

Product
Differen-tiation


None. Products uniform and of equal quality.

Products and services differentiated
to meet
the needs of specific markets.

Significant for some products like automo-biles. Little for standardized products like gasoline.

None.

Ease of Entry

Relatively easy to enter or leave
the market.

Relatively easy to enter or leave the market.

Difficult.
Often requires large capital investments.

Very difficult.

Part of
Economy
where
prevalent


A few raw agricultural products (wheat, corn).

Retail trade
(food, gasoline).

Steel, chemicals, autos, computers.

Local telephone, electricity, and gas utilities.

Methods of marketing

Market exchange
or auction.

Advertising
and quality rivalry; adminis-tered prices.

Advertising
and quality rivalry; admi-nistered prices.

Advertising

and service promotion



GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Modal Verbs and their Equivalents

Modal Verbs: can; could; be able to

I. Complete the sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern A: A cat ... climb trees, but it ... fly.

A cat can climb trees, but it can’t fly.

1. My sister ... dance, but she ... sing. 2. My brother ... speak French, but he ... speak English. 3. A tiny baby ... cry, but it ... talk. 4. I ... type, but
I ... do shorthand. 5. You ... buy stamps at the post office, but you ... buy shoes there. 6. She ... get to the University by bus, but she ... get there by underground.

Pattern B: I ... meet him today but I ... meet him last night.

I can meet him today, but I couldn’t meet him last night.

1. Olga ... skate now, but she ... skate last winter. 2. She ... help us today, but she ... help us yesterday. 3. Father ... work in the garden this afrernoon, but he ... work on Friday. 4. We ... pay for the radio set this week, but we ... pay for it last week. 5. I ... understand his behaviour now but, I ... undestand it when I was young. 6. John ... play the guitar now, but he ... play the guitar a few years ago. 7. My brother ... read now, but he ... read before he went to school. 8. I ... answer your question yesterday, but I ... answer it now.

Pattern C: I ... tell you this secret now, but I ... to tell you tomorrow.

I can’t tell you this secret now, but I shall be able to tell

you tomorrow.

1. I ... play chess now, but I ... to play chess this afternoon. 2. I ... help you now, but I ... to help you next week. 3. Jane ... swim very well, but she ... to swim if she trains regularly. 4. Nick ... finish this work in a day or two, but he ... to finish it in a week. 5. The students ... understand this rule now, but they ... to understand it when the teacher explains it. 6. We ... go swimming now, but we ... to go swimming when it gets warmer.
II. Ask your groupmate:

1. if he/she can read English books in the original; 2. if his/her father can speak any foreign languages; 3. if his/her mother can cook a lot of delicious things; 4. if he/she will be able to come to your place tomorrow;
5. if he/she can invite you to the party; 6. if he/she can play the piano; 7. if he/she could play the piano when he/she was a child; 8. if he/she can translate economic articles without a dictionary.

III. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: He can speak two foreign languages.

Сan he speak two foreign languages?

He can’t (cannot) speak two foreign languages.

1. She can speak French. 2. He can sleep a little longer on Sunday. 3. He can find this book at the library. 4. Ann can give you good advice. 5. Jane can solve this problem very easily. 6. We can discuss your paper after lunch. 7. He could run a mile in less than five minutes when he was young. 8. He can go for a walk with you. 9. They can do this work themselves. 10. You can use my car.

IV. Give short and full answers:

1. Can you help me? 2. Will you be able to help me tomorrow? 3. Could you read and write when you went to school? 4. Can you swim? 5. Could you swim when you were a child? 6. Can you speak English fluently?
7. Could you speak English two years ago? 8. Can’t you translate this article into Ukrainian without a dictionary? 9. Can you write with your left hand? 10. Can your father drive?

V. Answer the following questions:

1. How can you get to the University? 2. Where can the students prepare their lessons? 3. How many new words can you learn every day?
4. Where can you buy some English books? 5. Which of your friends can play tennis? 6. Why can’t your friend help you?

VI. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. You can type, ... ? 2. Tom could help you, ... ? 3. Mary couldn’t leave the children alone, ... ? 4. They couldn’t pay the rent, ... ? 5. You will be able to join us later, ... ? 6. George can leave his case here, ... ? 7. Victor can’t speak Spanish, ... ? 8. The children can read French, ... ?

VII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I can’t promise anything, but I’ll do what I can. 2. We can’t wear jeans at work. 3. There is someone outside. Who can it be? 4. I thought I could smell something burning. 5. I could drive a car before I left school.
6. She can’t be at home now. 7. You can take the car, if you want. 8. I can imagine how angry he is.

VIII. Change the sentences into the Past and Future Indefinite :

1. We can help you. 2. I can do this work myself. 3. Ann can’t carry that suitcase because it’s too heavy. 4. She can translate this article into English. 5. I can show you the way to the park. 6. They can’t answer your question.

IX. Complete the sentences in your own way:

1. Can you buy ... ? 2. Can you cook ... ? 3. Can you invite ... ? 4. Can you spend your day off ... ? 5. Can we have breakfast ... ? 6. Can you play ... ? 7. Can you get ...?

X. Translate into English:

1. Ви щось бачите? — Ні, я нічого не бачу. 2. Тепер я катаюся на ковзанах набагато краще, ніж минулого року. 3. Я не можу зробити цю роботу зараз, але гадаю, що зможу її зробити через два тижні. 4. Невже це правда? Не може бути, щоб він уже приїхав. 5. Ви граєте на роялі? — На жаль, не вмію, але я дуже хотіла б навчитися. 6. Я не можу відпо­вісти на друге запитання, але я зможу відповісти на нього, як тільки вивчу текст. 7. Невже твій брат знає французьку мову? — Так, він віль­но розмовляє французькою мовою. Коли ми приїхали в Париж, він зміг вести переговори з фірмами без перекладача. Ми можемо зустрітися з ним по обіді.
Modal Verbs: may; might
XI. Give short and full answers:

1. May I keep your book till Monday? 2. May I work in your room when you are away? 3. May I look some words up in the dictionary? 4. May I park my car here for a couple of hours? 5. May we cross the street when the light is red? 6. Please may I borrow your dictionary? 7. May I have a week’s holiday? 8. May I invite my friend to join us?

XII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. You may ring me up if you need my help. 2. He may be busy getting ready for the trip. 3. You may come if you wish. 4. You may go there by train. 5. He may have missed the train. 6. Oxford may have changed a lot in recent years, but it’s still a beautiful city. 7. I’ll write today so that he may know when to expect us. 8. Might I use your phone? 9. Honestly, you might have told me! 10. She may know about it.

XIII. Ask your teacher:

1. if you may come in; 2. if you may ask her/him a question; 3. if you may look through your notes; 4. if you may look up a word in the dictionary; 5. if you may have a break; 6. if you may go home earlier.

XIV. Translate into English:

1. Можна нам іти додому? — Так. 2. У мене не було із собою грошей. Я міг би купити цей словник. 3. Я можу дістати квитки зазда­легідь. 4. Якби він поспішив, то міг би встигнути на поїзд. 5. Я дам йому свої вправи, щоб він їх перевірив. 6. Вона, можливо, напише вам сама про це. 7. Він міг би навідатися до мене. Адже він знає, що я хворий. 8. У всякому разі ти могла б написати мені хоч кілька слів. 9. Дивно, що їх тут немає. Можливо, вони забули про нашу зустріч і вже пішли додому. 10. Він запитав мене, чи може взяти мій словник. 11. Може, завтра буде дощ. 12. Я не задоволена вашою відповіддю. Ви могли б відповідати краще.
Modal Verbs: must; be to; have to; have got to

XV. Give short and full answers:

1. Must the students attend any lectures at the University? 2. Must you return your books to the library in time? 3. Must they meet him at the station? 4. Must the secretary post the letters at once? 5. Must the students take part at the conference? 6. Must your friend go there today? 7. Must the children look both ways before crossing the road? 8. Must the children obey their parents?
XVI. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: He must do it himself.

Must he do it himself?

He needn’t (не треба) do it himself.

1. Everybody must go in for sports. 2. We must read English books every day. 3. You must air the room twice a day. 4. They must have a passport to visit most foreign countries. 5. Children must sleep nine hours a day. 6. You must leave tomorrow. 7. They must stay at home. 8. She must help her mother about the house.

XVII. Answer the following questions:

1. What time must you get up every morning? 2. When must you come to your lessons? 3. What must you do to know English well? 4. What must you do tonight? 5. Why must the students study hard? 6. Why must you prepare your home assignments regularly? 7. Why mustn’t you ask a woman her age? 8. Why must you obey the traffic rules?

XVIII. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. The students mustn’t be late for the lessons, ... ? 2. He must answer all these questions, ... ? 3. My sister doesn’t have to work at weekends, ... ? 4. We don’t have to pay for the tickets in advance, ... ? 5. You had to wait half an hour for a bus, ... ? 6. The children must make up their minds where they want to go, ... ? 7. You had to tell them about it, ... ? 8. We’ll have to borrow the money we need, ... ?

XIX. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I must go to the bank to get some money. 2. Cars mustn’t park in front of the entrance. 3. He must know all about it as he has read a lot on the subject. 4. It must be after midnight now. 5. She must be having a lot of problems with the language. 6. He must be angry with you. 7. She must be over fifty. 8. They must have missed the train. 9. We were to meet at six.
10. When I changed my job I had to move to another flat. 11. The children have to play in the streets till their mothers get home from work.

XX. Complete the following situation, using «be to»

Pattern: I can’t go to the cinema with you.
(be at the hospital at five).

I am to be at the hospital at five.

1. We’ll have to get up early. (leave at 6.30). 2. We were expecting him in Kyiv. (join us, on our trip). 3. You needn’t start writing the article at once. (but, hand it in next Friday). 4. He won’t be present at the meeting tomorrow. (take his examination in English). 5. We didn’t want to start the discussion of the book without him. (say a few words about the author).
6. Don’t let the child watch this film on TV. (children, not see such films).

XXI. Translate into English:

1. Я повинен негайно відвідати свого друга. Він, напевно, захворів. 2. Нам не довелося чекати, оскільки поїзд прийшов вчасно. 3. Вони по­винні принести цю книгу завтра. 4. Вона повинна відіслати листа негайно. 5. Ця робота має бути зроблена якнайшвидше. 6. Я мав був залишитися вдома учора. 7. Діти мають піти додому до того, як засу­теніє. 8. Ви не повинні тут курити, тут діти. 9. Не можна переходити вулицю на червоне світло. 10. Ви, напевно, здогадалися, що я мав на увазі.
Modal Verbs: should; ought to

XXII. Translate into Ukrainian:

a) 1. It’s late. You should go to bed. 2. I shouldn’t have trusted him so readily. 3. You shouldn’t miss the opportunity. 4. How should I know where you’ve left your bag? 5. Why should I help him? He’s never done anything for me. 6. We should have checked the time before we left. 7. We should arrive before dark. 8. I suggest that you should reconsider your position.

b) 1. This cake is delicious. You ought to try some. 2. Children ought to be able to read by the age of seven. 3. That ought to be enough food for all of us. 4. You ought to improve your French before going to work in Paris. 5. You ought to apologize. 6. You ought to have apologized (but you didn’t). 7. There ought to be more buses during the rush hour. 8. Children ought to respect their parents.

XXIII. Change the sentences using the verbs should or ought:

1. I advise you to read this book in the original. 2. I don’t advise you to make any marks in the book. 3. I advise you to consult a doctor. 4. It’s a pity you didn’t come to my place yesterday. 5. I don’t think it was clever of him to complain. He wasn’t right himself. 6. I don’t advise them to make a decision in a hurry. I think the matter must be considered carefully.

XXIV. Put «to» where necessary:

1. I’ll have (hurry). 2. You ought (take) a holiday. 3. You must (look) both ways before crossing the road. 4. You are (go) at once. 5. He used (spend) a lot of time in the library. 6. You may (keep) my book for a week. 7. We had (wait) as the manager was out. 8. Should I (tell) him the truth?
9. You needn’t (turn on) the light. I can (see) quite well. 10. I knew the town so I was able (advise) him where to go.

XXV. Translate into English:

1. Вам слід було складати іспити разом з іншими студентами.
2. У вас стомлений вигляд. Вам слід звернутися до лікаря. 3. Чому б нам не піти на прогулянку? 4. Чому я повинен завжди чекати на нього? 5. Йому слід було б відмовитися від запрошення, якщо він був такий зайнятий. 6. Вам слід було розповісти йому всю правду. 7. Вам не слід було ходити туди вчора. 8. Нам треба було купити квитки заздалегідь. 9. Чому б вам не запросити його на вечірку? 10. Вона в лікарні. Ти б прові­дала її. 11. Чому я повинен приймати його пропозицію? Я не згоден з ним.
Indefinite Pronoun: one. Indefinite-Personal Sentences

XXVI. Paraphrase the sentences using the indefinite pronoun one:

Pattern A: It is necessary for everyone to go in for sports.

One must go in for sports.

1. It is possible to find any book in this library. 2. It is necessary to take that into consideration. 3. It was impossible to go for a walk yesterday: it was raining all day long. 4. It is impossible to master a foreign language without working hard. 5. It is necessary to read newspapers every day. 6. It is necessary to be careful while crossing the road. 7. It is impossible to forget that day. 8. It is necessary to air the room before going to bed.
Pattern B: The new flat is more comfortable than the old flat.

The new flat is more comfortable than the old one.

1. The brown shoes are as dear as the black shoes. 2. This test was less difficult than the last test. 3. I don’t like this coat. Show me another coat. 4. Her new car goes faster than the old car. 5. The white dress is as nice as the yellow dress. 6. This film is more interesting than that film. 7. The cotton dress is not so dear as the silk dress. 8. The shop assistant showed me two suits of different colours. I chose the blue suit.

XXVII. Translate the sentences and define the function of «one»:

1. The students compared British universities with American ones.
2. I’ll speak to him one of these days. 3. One day he’ll understand his mistake. 4. Give me the book, please. — Which one? 5. Your father is the one man who can help you now. 6. I forgot to bring a pen. Can you lend me one? 7. One must do one’s duty. 8. In such circumstances one doesn’t sometimes know what one should do.

XXVIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. We are always pleased to meet old friends. 2. Before the names of seas we use the definite article. 3. In these situations one has to do his best. 4. They say we are going to have a hot summer. 5. You know more from life than from books. 6. Driving on the left is strange at first but you get used to it. 7. They’ve sent us another form to fill in. 8. One has to think about age.
9. How do you get to 5th Avenue from here? 10. You learn a language better if you visit the country where it’s spoken. 11. One tries to take an interest in what is going on. 12. They say that clever men have got the worst handwriting.

XXIX. Translate into English:

1. Не можна спізнюватися на заняття. 2. Потрібно піклуватися про своє здоров’я. 3. Треба дотримувати даного слова. 4. Потрібно вико­нувати домашні завдання регулярно. 5. Помилки інших людей бачиш швидше, ніж свої власні. 6. Ніколи не знаєш, що ця дитина може зробити. 7. Щоб бути гарним спеціалістом, потрібно вчитися наполег­ливо. 8. Якщо хочеш, щоб справу було зроблено, зроби її сам. 9. Ніколи не треба відкладати на завтра те, що можна зробити сьогодні. 10. На тарілці було кілька яблук. Я взяв червоне. 11. Коли не знаєш грама­тики, часто робиш помилки. 12. Потрібно завжди дотримуватися пра­вил дорожнього руху.
XXX. Memorize the following proverbs. Translate them into

Ukrainian:

1. One cannot please everyone. 2. We never know the value of water till the well is dry. 3. You cannot eat your cake and have it. 4. We know not what is good until we have lost it. 5. One cannot make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. 6. You cannot teach old dogs new tricks. 7. You cannot judge a tree by its bark. 8. We soon believe what we desire. 9. You cannot wash charcoal white.
EXERCISES for individual work

I. Insert may or might:

1. It ... rain, you’d better take a coat. 2. He said that it ... rain. 3. He said that we ... use his office whenever we liked. 4. You ought to buy now; prices ... go up. 5. You ... be more attentive in class. 6. They said they ... come tomorrow. 7. ... I borrow your umbrella? 8. Some of these mines ... even become profitable again. 9. We ... go to the country tomorrow.

II. Insert can, could or be able to:

1. He was very strong: he ... ski all day and dance all night. 2. I had no key so I ... lock the door. 3. When I first went to Spain I ... read Spanish but I ... speak it. 4. I was a long way from the stage. I ... see all right but I ... hear very well. 5. I’m locked in. I ... get out! (negative). 6. I ... go to the lecture today because I feel bad. 7. When I was a child I ... understand adults, and now when I am an adult I ... understand children. 8. ... you tell me the time, please? I’m afraid I ... . I haven’t got a watch.

III. Change the sentences into the Past and Future Indefinite:

1. He must sell the house. 2. We must do it at once. 3. Must you pay for it yourself? 4. She must learn the text by heart. 5. They must change trains in Paris. 6. They must read it carefully. 7. We must study hard. 8. I must change my shoes. 9. We must hurry. 10. They must be at the University at 8.30.

IV. Insert must or the present, future, or past form of have to:

1. You ... read this book. It’s really excellent. 2. She felt ill and ... leave early. 3. Mr Pitt ... cook his own meals. His wife is away. 4. Farmers ... get up early. 5. Park notice: All dogs ... be kept on leads. 6. Employer: You ... come to work in time. 7. He sees very badly and he ... wear glasses all the time. 8. Tell her that she ... be here by six. I insist on it. 9. The buses were all full and I ... get a taxi. 10. This work ... be done at once. 11. I hadn’t enough money and I ... pay by cheque. 12. You ... be careful crossing the road.
13. I never remember his address; I always ... look it up.

V. Insert must not or need not:

1. We ... drive fast; we have plenty of time. 2. You ... drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 3. You ... drink this: it is poison. 4. You ... smoke in a non-smoking compartment. 5. You ... ring the bell; I have a key. 6. Mother to child: You ... play with matches. 7. You ... write to him for he will be here tomorrow. 8. You ... bring an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain. 9. Candidates ... bring books into the examination room. 10. You ... do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be enough. 11. We ... make any noise or we’ll wake the baby. 12. I’ll lend you the money and you ... pay me back till next month.
VI. Put «to» where necessary:

1. He was able (explain). 2. He should (be) ready by now. 3. May I (ask) you a question? 4. You are not (mention) this to anyone. 5. The doctor said that I ought (give up) smoking. 6. It might (kill) somebody. 7. You needn’t (come) tomorrow. 8. He has (do) it himself. 9. We’ve got (get out). 10. You ought (have finished) it last night. 11. We didn’t have (pay) anything. 12. She ought (accept) the offer. 13. You can’t (cross) the street here.
14. You could (see) the sea from the house. 15. They ought (warn) people about the dangerous currents. 16. He used (live) here.

VII. Insert one(s) or one’s:

1. No, that’s not their car. Theirs is a blue ... . 2. I’ve never seen such big tulips as these ... . 3. If you don’t like this magazine, take another ... .
4. I liked this story very much, but I disliked that ... you told us yesterday.
5. ... must do ... duty. 6. ... shouldn’t forget ... promises. 7. Your texts are too easy, I shall give you some difficult ... . 8. ... ought to take care of ... health. 9. I prefer red roses to white ... . 10. Students who do well in examinations are often the ... who ask questions in class. 11. If you want a drink, I’ll get you ... .

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Можна було б чекати від нього більш увічливої відповіді.
2. Його кімната гарна, але та, в якій ви живете, набагато ліпша. 3. Завжди приємно зустрічати старих друзів. 4. Потрібно завжди відповідати на листи негайно. 5. Тепер можна розмовляти по телефону на будь-якій відстані. 6. Ніколи не знаєш, що він може зробити. 7. Це велика кім­ната, а та маленька (кімната). 8. Ці цифри можна знайти в будь-якому довіднику з цього питання. 9. Треба бути підготовленим. 10. Тут завжди продають гарні фрукти. 11. Треба бути завжди ввічливим. 12. Нікому не подобається бути покараним. 13. Ніколи не можна бути певним.
14. Кажуть, що цього року буде чудовий урожай пшениці. 15. Треба зробити це. 16. Потрібно взяти до уваги, що це питання дуже складне. 17. Я загубив свій годинник і мені довелося купити новий. 18. Якщо у вас немає словника, ви можете взяти його в бібліотеці. 19. Тут немає склянки. Принесіть, будь ласка.






U N I T 9 TOPIC: MARKETS and MARKET STRUCTURES
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