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n21.doc

U N I T 8


TOPIC: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: The Perfect Continuous Tenses

Indefinite Pronouns: much, many, few, little


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

business, enterprise, scarce, chance, satisfy, partnership, savings, retail, effort, profit, minimal, legal, legally, liable, personal, personally, loss, property, debt, borrow, terminate;

b) stress the second syllable:

proprietor, proprietorship, restriction, consumer, achieve, success, aside, financial, compete, involve, dissolve, assume, salon, repair, incur, ability;

c) stress the third syllable:

institution, economic, satisfaction, corporation, operation, disadvantage, recognition, liability, opportunity, continuity.
Text A

One of the major economic institutions is the business organization, a profit-seeking enterprise1 that serves as the main link between scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. These businesses compete with one another for the chance to satisfy people’s wants.

There are three major kinds of business organizations: the sole proprietorship2, the partnership3 and the corporation4.

The most common form of business organization is the sole proprietorship — a business owned and run by one person. The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is that it is the easiest form of business to start and run. There is almost no red tape5 involved. Most proprietorships are able to open for business as soon as they set up operations. In the event that the owner wants to dissolve the business6, a sole proprietorship is as easily dissolved as it is formed.

Sole proprietors own all the profits of their enterprises and are free to make whatever changes they please. They have minimal legal restrictions and do not have to pay the special taxes placed on corporations. They also have the opportunity to achieve success7 and recognition through their individual efforts. Sole proprietorships are generally found in small-scale retail and service businesses such as beauty salons, repair shops, or service stations.

The major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is the unlimited liability8 that each proprietor faces. Since the business and the owner are legally the same, the sole proprietor is liable for9 all financial losses or debts that the business may incur. If a business fails, the owner must personally assume the debts10. This could mean the loss of personal property such as automobiles, homes and savings11.

A second disadvantage of the sole proprietorship is that it has limited financial resources. The money that a proprietor can raise is limited by the amount of savings and ability to borrow. Another serious problem faced by the sole proprietorship is the lack of continuity of the business. When the owner dies, the business also legally terminates.

COMMENTS

1. a profit-seeking enterprise — прибуткове пiдприємство

2. sole proprietorship/sole trader/one-man firm — одноосiбна власнiсть

3. partnership партнерство

4. corporation корпорація

5. red tape — бюрократизм

6. to dissolve the business припинити діяльність підприємства

7. to achieve success досягти успіху

8. unlimited liability — необмежена юридична відповідальність

9. to be liable for — бути відповідальним за

10. to assume the debts — приймати/брати на себе борги

11. savings — заощадження

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. State the part of speech and say how the words are formed:

economic, organization, enterprise, consumer, compete, scarce, common, satisfy, satisfaction, proprietor, legal, legally, free, assume, personal, personally, owner, opportunity, generally, recognition, financial, lack, another.

II. Find equivalents:

1. to be liable for smth

2. a partnership

3. to dissolve the business

4. profit-seeking enterprise

5. sole proprietorship

6. retail business

7. the main link

8. red tape

9. unlimited liability

10. to compete

  1. scarce resources

  2. the main advantage

  3. to achieve success

  4. savings

15. to pay taxes

a. конкурувати

б. одноосiбна власнiсть

в. основна сполучна ланка

г. прибуткове пiдприємство

д. заощадження

е. бути вiдповiдальним за щось

є. припинити діяльність підприємства

ж. партнерство

з. платити податки

и. дефіцитні/недостатні ресурси

i. головна перевага

ї. необмежена відповідальність

й. бюрократизм

к. досягти успіху

л. роздрібна торгівля

III. Substitute the words in bold type by their synonyms:

1. Business organization is a profitable enterprise that serves as the main link between scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. 2. The firms compete with one another for the chance to meet people’s requirements. 3. The simplest form of business undertaking is that managed by one person. 4. There is almost no bureaucracy involved. 5. In the event the owner wants to go out of business, a sole proprietorship is as easily dissolved as it is formed. 6. Sole proprietors have the chance to succeed in business through their individual efforts. 7. They are responsible for the firm’s operation and take all risks of loss. 8. Many small businesses have gone bankrupt recently.

IV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. A business organization is a profit-seeking enterprise that serves ... the main link ... scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. 2. These businesses compete ... one another ... the chance to satisfy people’s wants. 3. The most ... common form ... business organization is the sole proprietorship — a business owned and run ... one person. 4. Most ... proprietorships are able to open ... business ... they set ... operations. 5. Sole proprietors have the opportunity to achieve success and recognition ... their individual efforts. 6. Another serious problem faced ... the sole proprietorship is the lack ... continuity ... the business.

V. Match the antonyms:

profitable, separately, advantage, producer, to give permission, limited, to start a business, unprofitable, jointly, to go out of business, to agree, illegal, to succeed in business, to be out of business, consumer, to disagree, unlimited, legal, disadvantage, to prohibit.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. One of the major economic institutions is ... . 2. These businesses compete with one another ... . 3. There are three major kinds of business organizations ... . 4. The most common form of business ownership is ... .
5. The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is ... . 6. In the event that the owner wants to dissolve the business ... . 7. Sole proprietorships are generally found ... . 8. Sole proprietors have ... . 9. The major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is ... . 10. Since the business and the owner are legally the same, the sole proprietor is ... . 11. If a business fails ... . 12. A second disadvantage of the sole proprietorship is ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a business organization? 2. What are the major kinds of business organizations? 3. What is the most common form of business organization? 4. The sole proprietorship is a business owned and run by one person, isn’t it? 5. What is the main advantage of a sole proprietorship?
6. What other advantages does it have? 7. In what businesses are sole proprietorships generally found? 8. What are the major disadvantages of
a sole proprietorship?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Є три форми органiзацiї бiзнесу: одноосiбна власність, парт­нерство та корпорація. 2. Найбiльш поширеною формою органiзацiї бiзнесу є одноосiбна власність. 3. Одноосiбна власність — це бізнес, який пiдпорядкований i провадиться однiєю особою. 4. За винятком певних лiцензiй i внескiв, якi можуть вимагати урядовi органiзацiї, бiльше жодного бюрократизму не iснує. 5. Головним недоліком одно­осібного підприємства є необмежена юридична відповідальність.
6. Оскільки підприємство та власник — та сама юридична особа, власник несе відповідальність за фінансові збитки та борги підприємства.
7. Якщо бізнес зазнає краху, власник особисто бере на себе всі борги.
8. Іншим недоліком одноосібної власності є обмежені фінансові ресурси.

IX. Retell the text A using the following words and

word-combinations:

business organization; the sole proprietorship, partnership; corporation; a profit-seeking enterprise; the main advantage; to dissolve the business; to pay taxes; red tape; to have minimal legal restrictions; small-scale retail and service businesses; to achieve success; to have unlimited liability; to assume the debts; to be liable for; the loss of personal property; savings.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

partner, partnership, jointly, wholesaling, stockbrokerage, management, talent, purpose, profit, common, medicine, limited, benefit, liable, legal, legally;

b) stress the second syllable:

combine, accounting, retailing, responsible, agree, decision, investment, involve, advantage, amount, invest, financial.



Text B

A partnership is a business that is jointly owned by two or more people who have combined their talents and resources for the purpose of earning a profit. Partnerships are most common in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, stockbrokerage1, but they are also found in manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing2.

The most common form of partnership is a general partnership3. General partners own the business, work in it and share the profits and losses. They are responsible for the management of the business and usually agree with each other before making any major decisions.

There may be a special type of partnership, called limited partnership4. Limited partners are only liable for the amount they have invested in the business. They are usually not involved in the management of the firm.

Partnerships have more advantages than sole proprietorships. Like sole proprietorship they are easy to form and often get tax benefits5 from the government.

Partnerships have certain disadvantages too. The major disadvantage is unlimited financial liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. But one of the greatest problems in partnerships is that partners may disagree with each other causing management conflicts.

COMMENTS

1. stockbrokerage/stockbroking біржове маклерство

2. wholesaling and retailing — оптова та роздрібна торгівля

3. general partnership — товариство з необмеженою відповідальністю

4. limited partnership — товариство з обмеженою відповідальністю

5. tax benefits — податкові пільги

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the English equivalents for:

партнерство; отримувати прибуток; біржове маклерство; товариство з необмеженою відповідальністю; ділити прибуток та збитки; оптова та роздрібна торгівля; юриспруденція; бухгалтерський облік; виробництво; перевага; товариство з обмеженою відповідальністю; управління бізнесом; бути відповідальним за щось; одноосiбна власність; одержувати подат­кові пільги від уряду; приймати рішення; головний недолік.

II. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

the profits; losses; tax benefits; the management; general partners; sole proprietorships; wholesaling; unlimited financial liability; limited partners.

1. Partnerships are also found in manufacturing, ________ and retailing. 2. _________ are the partners with unlimited liability. 3. General partners own the business, work in it and share ________ and ________ .
4. General partners are responsible for ____________ of the business.
5. Partnerships have more advantages than ____________ . 6. The major disadvantage of a partnership is ___________ . 7. ___________ are usually not involved in the management of the firm. 8. Partnerships very often receive ___________ from the government.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. A partnership is a business that is ... owned ... two or more ... people. 2. The partners are responsible ... the management ... the business and usually agree ... each other ... making any ... major ... decisions.
3. Limited partners are liable ... the amount they have invested ... the business. 4. They are usually not involved ... the management ... the firm.
5. Each partner is responsible ... all debts and is legally responsible ... the whole business. 6. One ... the greatest problems ... partnerships is that partners may disagree ... each other causing conflicts ... management.

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1. A partnership is a business that... . 2. Partnerships are most common in ... . 3. The most common form of partnership is ... . 4. All partners are responsible for ... . 5. There may be a special type of partnership, called ... .
6. Limited partners are only liable ... . 7. They are usually not involved ... .
8. Like sole proprietorship partnerships are ... . 9. The major disadvantage of a partnership is ... . 10. One of the greatest problems in partnerships is ... .

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a partnership? 2. In what professional fields are partnerships most common? 3. What is the most common form of a partnership? 4. What is a general partnership? 5. What is a limited partnership? 6. They are usually not involved in the management of the firm, are they? 7. What is the difference between a general partnership and a limited partnership? 8. What advantages do partnerships have? 9. What is the major disadvantage of a partnership? 10. What is one of the greatest problems in partnerships?
READING DRILLS
1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

operate, corporate, charter, document, grant, company, salary, private, public, specify, share, shareholder, stock, stockholder, dividend, portion, profit, profitable, ownership;

b) stress the second syllable:

establish, permission, headquarter, eventually, certificate, ability, invest, investor, equipment, research, capacity, expansion, expensive, approve, acquire, require, obtain, create, avoid, addition.
Text C

Nearly 90 per cent of all business is done by corporations. A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. People, who would like to form a corporation, must file for permission1 in the state where the business will have its headquarters. If approved, a charter, government document that gives permission to create a corporation, is granted. The charter states the name of the company, address, purpose of business etc.

The charter specifies the number of shares of stock2, or ownership parts of the firm. These shares are certificates of ownership3 and are sold to investors called shareholders or stockholders4. The money is then used to set up corporation. If the corporation is profitable it will eventually issue dividend or a check, representing a portion of the corporate profits to shareholders.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The major advantage is the ability to acquire greater financial resources than other forms of ownership. The next advantage is that the corporation attracts a large amount of capital and can invest it in plants, equipment and research. It can offer higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists. Corporations have great capacity for growth and expansion.

Corporations face some major disadvantages. It is difficult and expensive to organize a corporation. The process of obtaining a charter usually requires the services of a lawyer. Most small firms prefer to avoid these expenses by forming proprietorships and partnerships. There is also an extra tax on corporate profits. The government taxes corporate income in addition to the taxes paid by shareholders on their dividends.
COMMENTS
1. file for permissionзвернутися за дозволом

2. the number of shares of stock — кількість акцiй основного капiталу

3. certificates of ownership — свідоцтво про власнiсть

4. shareholder/stockholder акцiонер; власник акцій
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
І. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

to establish a business; to make a profit; to form a corporation; to file for permission; a charter; to give permission; to create a corporation; certificates of ownership; partnership; the number of shares of stock; proprietorship; to attract a large amount of capital; shareholder; stockholder; small firms; an extra tax on corporate profits; corporate form of ownership; profitable; to set up corporation; the major advantage/disadvantage; to attract talented managers and specialists; to issue dividends; financial resources; to invest; corporate income.

II. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

a corporate charter; corporation; stock certificates; the corporate profits; the number of shares of stock; the owners; shareholders; expansion; financial resources; corporate income.

1. A business _________ is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. 2. People, who would like to form a corporation, must apply for ________ . 3. The charter specifies _________ , or ownership parts of the firm. 4. The stockholders are ______ of the corporation. 5. To attract greater ______ the company issues _________ . 6. Dividend represents a portion of ________ to shareholders. 7. Corporations have great capacity for growth and ________ . 8. The government taxes ________ in addition to the taxes paid by _______ on their dividends.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Nearly 90 per cent ... all business is done ... corporations. 2. They are established ... the purpose ... making profit. 3. There are several advantages ... the corporate form ... ownership. 4. Corporations have great capacity ... growth and expansion. 5. Corporations face ... some ... major disadvantages. 6. The government taxes corporate income ... addition ... the taxes paid ... shareholders ... their dividends.

IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. organization

a. A business that is owned by two or more people.

2. sole proprietorship

b. People or groups working for a common purpose and whose tasks are often divided into specializations.

3. partnership

c. Payments made from the earnings of

a corporation to its stockholders.

4. corporation

d. Owner of stock in a corporation.

5. charter

e. A business organization created under

a government charter.

6. stockholder

f. A document issued by a state government

granting a corporation permission to operate.

7. dividends

g. Owners of the partnership have unlimited

liability.

8. general partnership

h. A business that is owned by one person.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. Proprietorships are

a. difficult and costly to organize.

b. the most numerous kind of business organization.

c. business with more than one owner.

d. mostly used by large business organizations.

2. One advantage of a partnership is that

a. adding partners brings in more capital to the business.

b. each partner is subject to unlimited liability.

c. partners get along well together.

d. the business continues even if one partner dies.

3. A corporation is an «artificial person». This means the corporation

a. is difficult to organize.

b. can raise only limited capital.

c. is the most numerous form of business organization.

d. can sue or be sued, enter into contracts, and must pay taxes.

4. In a large corporation

a. stockholders run the company.

b. the board of directors owns the corporation.

c. ownership and management are separated.

d. there is no need to operate under a charter and bylaws.

VI. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Nearly 90 per cent of all business is done by corporations. 2. Because they involve so few people, sole proprietorships and partnerships are not true business organizations. 3. Corporations are better than any other organizational form. 4. There are no real advantages to any of the three main forms of business organizations. 5. Corporations have a lot of owners called stockholders. 6. They can buy and sell their shares without ending the business.
7. Stockholders don’t have to pay a special tax on profits. 8. Stockholders must pay corporate income tax. 9. You have to hire a lawyer to organize a corporation. 10. Corporations have great capacity for growth and expansion.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. Is nearly 90 per cent of all business done by corporations? 2. What is a corporation? 3. What is necessary to form a corporation? 4. What does the charter state? 5. Does it specify the number of shares of stock? 6. What may a corporation issue? 7. What does a dividend represent? 8. What is the major advantage of the corporate form of ownership? 9. Do corporations have great capacity for growth and expansion? 10. What disadvantages do corporations face? 11. There is also an extra tax on corporate profits, isn’t there?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Корпорацiя — це організація, створена з метою одержання прибутку. 2. Для того, щоб створити корпорацiю, необхiдно звернутися за дозволом у той штат, де пiдприємство матиме свою штаб-квартиру.
3. Корпорацiя може випускати та продавати акції. 4. Якщо корпорацiя прибуткова, вона видає пайовикам дивiденди або чек на відповідну частку прибутку корпорацiї. 5. Корпорацiя має більше можливостей для залучення фінансових ресурсів, ніж партнерство. 6. Корпорацiя може пропонувати вищу заробітну плату і в такий спосіб приваблювати тала­новитих менеджерів та спеціалістів.

IX. Replace the Ukrainian words and phrases by suitable English


equivalents in the correct form. Retell the passage:

(Корпорація) is a company chartered by (державою) and owned by stockholders. (Акціонери) are represented by (радою директорів), and (несуть відповідальність) for company actions and (борги) only up to the amount each stockholder (інвестував). This feature is called (обмеженою юридичною відповідальністю). (Перевагою) of the corporation is that it is relatively easy to raise (фінансовий капітал). Transferring (власності) is also easy, since it frequently means only (продаж акцій).

(Недоліками) are that corporations are subject to special (урядового регулювання), and that individual stockholders may have a rather limited say in company operations.
X. Memorise the following proverbs with the word «business».

Translate them into Ukrainian:

1. Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.

2. Every man to his business.

3. Business before pleasure.

COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. Make a report in your class: «Sole proprietorship is the most common form of business ownership».

2. You would like to open your own business. What type of business organizations would you prefer? (sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation)? Explain your choice.

3. You want to go into business with a partner. Consult a lawyer how to form a partnership.

4. You are at the conference. The theme of your report is: «Advantages and disadvantages of the corporate form of ownership».

5. Discuss with your friends advantages and disadvantages of the three forms of business ownership. Use the table given below:


Form
of ownership


Advantages

Disadvantages

Sole proprietorship

1. Retention of all profits.
2. Ease of formation & dissolution.

3. Freedom & flexibility of management.

4. Secrecy of operation.

1. Unlimited financial

liability.

2. Limited financial resources.

3. Management deficiencies.

4. Lack of continuity.

Partnership

1. Ease of formation.

2. Complementary management technical skills.

3. Greater financial resources.

4. Employee incentive.

1. Unlimited financial liability.

2. Disagreements among partners.

3. Lack of continuity.

4. Complexity of dissolution.

Corporation

1. Limited financial liability.

2. Specialized management skills.

3. Great financial capability.

4. Unlimited life span.

5. Ownership easily
transferred.

6. Capacity for growth.

1. Difficult & costly

to establish.

2. Lack of personal interest by management.

3. Legal restrictions & government regulations.

4. Lack of secrecy in operation.



GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I. Give short and full answers:

1. Have you been studying at the University for two years? 2. Have you been studying hard since the beginning of the term? 3. Have the students been writing a dictation for half an hour? 4. Have they been waiting for the results long? 5. Have you been wearing glasses since you were at school?
6. Has it been snowing hard since morning?
II. Answer the following questions:

1. When did you enter the University? 2. How long have you been studying here? 3. What is your favourite subject? 4. When did you begin to study it? 5. How long have you been studying it? 6. When did you begin to learn English? 7. How long have you been learning it? 8. What have you been doing outside of class to improve your English?
III. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: The film has been running for a month.

Has the film been running for a month?

The film hasn’t /has not/ been running for a month.

1. They have been waiting for the director since two o’clock. 2. It has been raining since the morning. 3. They have been repairing the road since March. 4. The students have been translating the text for an hour and a half. 5. He has been trying to open this door for half an hour. 6. The kettle has been boiling for a quarter of an hour. 7. My mother has been working at the same store for ten years.

IV. Ask how long the action has been taking place:

Pattern: It is raining. How long has it been raining?

1. Mike plays chess. 2. His foot is hurting. 3. George smokes. 4. Ann is looking for a job. 5. It is snowing. 6. They wait for him. 7. You live in this city. 8. She teaches English. 9. Mary sells washing machines.

V. Change the sentences according to the patterns:

Pattern A: He has already written this letter. (since morning)

He has been writing this letter since morning.

1. We have discussed all these problems (the whole month). 2. What has happened here? (while I have been away). 3. She has taught them how to do it. (for years). 4. He has just read this book. (all week). 5. They have already built the theatre. (for two years). 6. I’ve helped her with her work. (since she came to this office).

Pattern B: We organized our company a year ago (invest much money).

We have been investing much money since we organized our company.

1. We advertised the application last week (wait for reply). 2. My friend bought the stock of the company five years ago (make money). 3. They received the corporate charter a month ago (plan a meeting). 4. We elected a new Board of Directors last month (plane change). 5. He became a member of the Board of Directors (work hard).

VI. Ask your groupmate:

1. if he/she learns English; 2. when he/she began to study English;
3. since when he/she has been learning English; 4. how long he/she has been studying English; 5. where his/her father/mother works; 6. when he/she began to work there; 7. since when he/she has been working there; 8. how long he/she has been working there.

VII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. Tom has been wearing this suit for two years. 2. The children have been playing tennis since lunch time. 3. My friend has been working at his essay all day. 4. The film has been running for a month. 5. Mary has been looking after the baby since her mother went to the market. 6. Ann has been speaking over the telephone for twenty minutes. 7. These magazines have been lying on the table for some days.

VIII. Complete the sentences in your own way:

1. She has been watching TV ... . 2. I have been looking for my friend’s address ... . 3. They have been doing this exercise ... . 4. He has been wearing glasses ... . 5. We have been walking ... . 6. The child has been sleeping ... . 7. She has been waiting ... . 8. He has been trying to park his
car ... .

IX. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Continuous

Tense:

1. How long you (wait) for me? — I (wait) for about half an hour.
2. You (drive) all day. Let me drive now. 3. How long you (wear) glasses?
4. He (study) Spanish for two years and doesn’t even know the alphabet yet. 5. I (shop) all day and I haven’t a penny left. 6. Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (look) for it for ages. 7. The children (look) forward to this holiday for months. 8. The Board of Directors (chose) the company officers for the past few days. 9. She (work) with annual report since yesterday.
10. Our company (do) good business for the last two years.
X. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect

or the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

1. He (wear) this suit for two years. 2. She (drive) for years and never (have) an accident. 3. I only (hear) from him twice since he went away.
4. You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged!  That’s not new.
I (know) it for ages. 5. Mother (cook) a chocolate cake today. 6. Mother (cook) dinner for half an hour. 7. Nobody (see) him since last week. 8. He (do) his homework for two hours and he (not finish) yet. 9. This company (expand) greatly since last year. 10. We already (apply) for a corporate charter.

XI. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. He went to Odesa last summer and has been working there since then. 2. Have you been standing in the rain long? 3. Why hasn’t he been sleeping well lately? 4. I have been roasting meat for half an hour. 5. Jane and Bill have been skating all the morning. 6. Hasn’t the bell been ringing for some time? 7. She has been teaching English to foreign students since she left the college. 8. Who has been singing so loudly since I returned home?

XII. Translate into English:

1. Що ти тут робиш? — Чекаю на автобус. — Скільки часу ти чекаєш на нього? — Я чекаю на нього вже десять хвилин. 2. Мій друг закінчив університет три роки тому. Відтоді він працює на фірмі менеджером. 3. Покличте дітей обідати. Вони граються на подвір’ї із самого ранку. 4. Як довго ти вже водиш машину? — Чотири роки.
Я купила її, коли переїхала в це місто. 5. Що тут відбувається? Чому ви такі збуджені? — Ми сперечалися. 6. Що ви робитимете після обіду? — Ми будемо пити каву, як завжди. — Ви п’єте надто багато кави останнім часом. 7. Ти знову курив у кімнаті? — Так. 8. — Ти плакала? Що сталося?

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

XIII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. We had been walking for hours before we saw the lake. 2. My uncle had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to California.
3. She had been reading the book for two hours when I came. 4. My friend had been smoking for thirty years when he finally gave it up. 5. Tom had been working as a manager there for seven years by that time. 6. I had been revising the texts for two hours, when he rang me up yesterday.
XIV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. It had been raining for two hours when I left home. 2. When I came they had been discussing this question for over an hour. 3. I said that I had been staying in bed all day. 4. I was told that your friend had been waiting for half an hour before you rang him up. 5. He had been looking for his notebook the whole morning before he finally discovered it under the newspaper. 6. Jane explained that she had been taking that medicine for a long time. 7. We had been talking for about an hour, when his wife rang up and reminded him about the theatre. 8. John had been working at the University for forty years before he retired.
XV. Change the sentences into the Past Perfect Continuous:

Pattern: He was short of breath because (run all the way).

He was short of breath because he had been running

all the way.

1. His hands were dirty (work in the garden). 2. Her eyes were red (cry). 3. She looked half asleep (rest). 4. He was behind the class (not study properly). 5. She passed all her examinations very well (study hard throughout the term).
XVI. Translate into English:

1. Мій брат два роки працював на заводі, перш ніж зміг вступити до університету. 2. Його батьки залишили квартиру, в якій прожили двадцять років. 3. Вона сказала, що її батько працює в цій фірмі з 1985 року. 4. До нашого приїзду два дні йшов сильний сніг. 5. Вчора лис­тоноша приніс мені лист. Я чекав на цей лист три тижні. 6. Коли ми вийшли з дому, ішов дощ. Він ішов уже дві години. 7. Учені працювали над цією проблемою три роки до того, як поїхали на конференцію.
8. Коли викладач увійшов до аудиторії, студенти обговорювали план екскурсії.

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

XVII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I shall have been translating the article for an hour before you come. 2. Will you have been waiting for another hour? 3. You’ll have been discussing this problem for half an hour when I come. 4. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home. 5. My sister will have been living in Minsk for five years by the end of this month. 6. By this time next year he will have been lecturing on the subject for five years. 7. By the first of September she will have been teaching in this school for 25 years. 8. He will have been studying for two hours by the time you come.

XVIII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. By the end of the month we shall have been living in this house for two years. 2. My sister will have been living in Lviv for five years by the end of this month. 3. We shall have been having dinner for half an hour when you call for us. 4. This actor will have been performing the chief part for several years. 5. He will have been staying at the theatre for two hours when his friend comes.

XIX. Translate into English:

1. Ми будемо готувати обід (уже) годину, коли до нас прийдуть гості. 2. Я почну працювати о десятій годині ранку. Коли ви повер­нетесь додому, я вже працюватиму сім годин. 3. Як довго ви будете писати контрольну роботу, перш ніж здати її викладачеві? 4. Я цілий день думаю про те, що розповідатиму їм, коли ми прийдемо до них.
5. До кінця року мої батьки житимуть у Лондоні вже чотири роки. 6. До кінця семестру я вивчатиму англійську мову вже десять років.
Indefinite Pronouns: much, many, few, little

XX. Fill in the blanks with many, much, a lot of, lots of,

plenty of, a good deal of, a great deal of:

1. I’ve got ... friends in this village. 2. ... people think so. 3. It took her ... time to clean the room. She works very slowly. 4. She put so ... salt in the soup that nobody could eat it. 5. A postman has to walk ... . 6. He spends ... money on books. 7. Has the town changed ... ? 8. My room has as ... windows as yours. 9. He hasn’t got ... work to do. 10. There isn’t ... water in the pond today. 11. Do big dogs eat much? Yes, they eat ... . 12. ... of what you say is true. 13. Did he make ... mistakes in his dictation?

XXI. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. The village was very small. There were only a few houses. 2. There was so much traffic that we were an hour late. 3. I don’t have much money with me. 4. She never eats much for breakfast. 5. Hurry up! We’ve only got a little time. 6. We spent a lot of money. 7. This jacket costs too much. 8. There too many advertisements during television shows. 9. Many people know about it. 10. We’ve got very little time. 11. I didn’t ski much during my vacation. 12. He read a lot during his vacation. 13. Have you got many friends? — I have got very few friends.

XXII. Fill in the blanks with many or much:

1. How ... sheets of paper do you want? 2. Hurry up! You haven’t got ... time. 3. How ... does it cost? 4. I don’t drink ... wine. 5. Did you pay ... money for your watch? 6. We haven’t had ... rain this summer. 7. How ... time does it take you to go there? 8. How ... butter did you buy? 9. How ... apples did you buy? 10. He doesn’t eat ... fruit. 11. Does Mary spend ... time on her English? 12. There are too ... mistakes in this essay.

XXIII. Translate into English:

1. Ви зробили дуже мало помилок у творі. 2. Скільки ви запла­тили за ваш словник? — Багато. Я витрачаю дуже багато грошей на книжки. 3. Ви їсте багато фруктів улітку? 4. Не поспішайте! У нас багато часу. 5. Багато написано на цю тему. 6. Ви купили дуже мало м’яса. 7. У вас багато роботи сьогодні? — Так. Я не можу піти з вами в кіно сьогодні, оскільки в мене надто багато роботи. 8. Ви читали багато книжок з цього питання? — Так, я читав багато книжок з цього питання. 9. Багато людей пробували зійти на гору, але мало хто досяг вершини. 10. Учора в парку було мало дітей.
EXERCISES for individual work

I. Fill in the blanks with for or since:

1. We’ve been fishing ... two hours. 2. I’ve been working in this office ... a month. 3. They’ve been living in France ... 1970. 4. I’ve known that ... a long time. 5. That man has been standing there ... six o’clock. 6. I’ve been using this machine ... twelve years. 7. The strike has lasted ... six months.
8. We’ve been waiting ... half an hour. 9. I’ve been trying to open this door ... twenty minutes. 10. The police have been looking for him ... four days.
11. He has been very ill ... the last month.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect

or the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

1. We (walk) ten kilometres. 2. We (walk) for three hours. 3. I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. 4. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. 5. He (not stop) eating since he arrived. 6. The students (work) very well this term. 7. He (teach) in this school for five years. 8. I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this. 9. I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I don’t like any of them. 10. He (sleep) since ten o’clock. It’s time he woke up. 11.They (play) tennis since lunch time. 12. She (talk) to him on the phone for a quarter of an hour. 13. I (know) David since childhood. 14. He (work) with this company since 1990.
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Perfect Continuous tense forms:
1. He said he (work) since five o’clock. 2. By the end of the next term we (study) English for three years already. 3. What you (do) for the past two weeks? 4. For the past few minutes I (try) to explain to you that you can’t make me go there. 5. He (paint) this picture for two years and I don’t know when he is going to finish it. 6. I (live) in Germany for five years before I came to Ukraine. 7. He (drive) all day, so he was very tired when he arrived. 8. The child (sleep) for an hour before we came. 9. By the time she comes, he (stay) at the hotel for two days. 10. Suddenly she understood that she (speak) for a long time and it was time to stop. 11. The students (write) a test for two hours. 12. He (look) through the documents for half an hour when the phone rang. 13. Ukraine (be) independent since 1991.


  1. Fill in the blanks with many, much, more, less, little, a little,
    few, a few:



1. He had very ... friends (hardly any friends). 2. He drank ... water and felt much better. 3. Hurry up! We have very ... time. 4. He had ... friends (some friends). 5. ... people understood what he said (hardly any people).
6. It’s no use asking him about it. He has ... knowledge of the subject.
7. May I have ... wine, please? 8. He had ... friends (some friends). 9. How ... English words do you know? 10. Does he read ...? — It’s a pity but he reads too ... . 11. I don’t drink ... coffee. 12. Please, try to make ... noise. 13. Some ... tea, please. 14. I have something to say. May I have ... words with you?






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