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U N I T 7


TOPIC: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: The Past Perfect Tense. The Future Perfect Tense

Indefinite Pronouns: some, any, no, none


reading drILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

scarcity, common, organize, market, ritual, custom, habit, stable, punish, century, harsh, differently, since, system, major, stagnant;

b) stress the second syllable:

survive, survival, society, community, determine, traditional, command, result, ability, prescribe, behaviour, distribute, advantage, discourage, provide, activity, continuous, decision, economy.
Text A

The survival of any society depends on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people. Since these societies are also faced with scarcity decisions concerning What, How and for Whom to produce must be made.

All societies have something else in common. They have an economic system or an organized way of providing for the wants and needs of their people. The way in which these decisions are made will determine the type of economic system they have. There are three major kinds of economic systems: traditional, command and market.

Traditional Economy

In a society with a traditional economy nearly all economic activity is the result of ritual and custom. Habit and custom also prescribe most social behaviour1. Individuals are not free to make decisions based on what they want or would like to have. Instead, their roles are defined. They know what goods and services will be produced, how to produce them, and how such goods and services will be distributed.

An example of traditional economy is the society of polar eskimo2 of the last century. For generations, parents taught their children how to survive in a harsh climate, make tools, fish and hunt. Their children, in turn, taught these skills to the next generation. The main advantage of the traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it. This helps keep economic life stable and community life continuous. The main disadvantage of the traditional economy is that it tends to discourage3 new ideas and even punishes people for breaking rules or doing things differently. So it tends to be stagnant4 or fails to grow over time5.

COMMENTS

1. social behaviourтут: поведiнка суспiльства

2. polar eskimo — ескiмоси пiвночi

3. to discourage розхолоджувати

4. ... tends to be stagnant — має схильнiсть до застою

5. ... fails to grow over time — не може розвиватися далi

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to survive, to depend on, to provide, to prescribe, to decide, to distribute, to determine, to organize, to generate, to behave, to define, to know, to punish, to tend, to grow, to direct.

  1. Find equivalents:

1. to make decisions

2. to have smth in common

3. economic system

4. traditional economy

5. command economy

6. market economy

7. social behaviour

8. major kinds

9. for generations

10. main advantage

11. main disadvantage

12. to make tools

а. із поколiння в поколiння

б. традицiйна економiка

в. поведiнка суспiльства

г. головнi типи

д. головний недолiк

е. приймати рiшення

є. командна економiка

ж. головна перевага

з. ринкова економiка

и. економiчна система

i. мати щось спiльне

ї. виробляти знаряддя

III. Match the synonyms:

decision, approximately, produce, shelter, to make, type, habitation, as, the community, major, concerning, to produce, the society, main, nearly, about, kind, since, product, solution.

IV. Match the antonyms:

scarcity, last, advanced, to produce, to discourage, next, stagnant, stable, to encourage, to distribute, disadvantage, to accumulate, uncommon, advantage, to consume, unstable, common, abundance.


  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. The survival ... any society depends ... its ability to provide ... food, clothing and shelter ... its people. 2. All ... societies have an economic system or an organized way ... providing ... the wants and needs ... their people. 3. There are three major kinds ... economic systems: traditional, command and market. 4. In a society ... a traditional economy ... all ... economic activity is the result ... ritual and custom. 5. An example ... traditional economy is the society ... polar eskimo ... the last century.
VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. The survival of any society depends on ... . 2. Since these societies are also faced with scarcity ... . 3. All societies have an organized way of providing for ... . 4. The way in which these decisions are made ... . 5. There are three major kinds of economic systems: ... . 6. In a society with traditional economy nearly all economic activity is ... . 7. Individuals are not free to make decisions based on ... . 8. An example of traditional economy is ... . 9. For generations, parents taught their children ... . 10. The main advantage of the traditional economy is ... . 11. The main disadvantage of the traditional economy is ... .
VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the survival of any society depend on? 2. What are all societies faced with? 3. What have all societies in common? 4. What determines the type of economic system? 5. What are the major kinds of economic systems? 6. What prescribes most social behaviour? 7. What is the role of individuals in a traditional economy? 8. What did polar eskimo teach their children? 9. What is the main advantage/disadvantage of the traditional economy?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Кожному суспiльству доводиться приймати рiшення стосовно того, що, як та для кого виробляти. 2. Виживання суспiльства залежить вiд того, чи воно спроможне забезпечувати своїх людей їжею, одягом та житлом. 3. Кожному суспiльству притаманна своя економiчна система. 4. Тип економiчної системи визначається методом, за яким приймають­ся рiшення про задоволення бажань та потреб людей. 5. У суспiльствi з традицiйною економiкою вся економiчна дiяльнiсть є результатом тра­дицiй та звичаїв. 6. Люди не вiльнi приймати рiшення, якi ґрунтуються на тім, що вони хочуть або хотiли б мати. 7. Люди знають, якi товари або послуги будуть вироблятися, як вони вироблятимуться та як вони розподiлятимуться. 8. Ескiмоси пiвночi навчали своїх дiтей, як виго­товляти знаряддя, ловити рибу та полювати. 9. Головний недолiк традицiйної економiки полягає в тім, що вона схильна розхолоджувати ідеї. 10. Головна перевага традицiйної економiки в тім, що кожний у нiй має свою роль. 11. Традицiйна економiка схильна до застою i не може розвиватися далi.
reading drILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

leader, government, quota, industry, planning, growth, shift, strengthen, military, drastically, relatively, similar, wages, seldom, quality, tendency, costs, operate, choice;

b) stress the second syllable:

command, authority, production, consumer, direct, direction, regardless, defence, equipment, supply, incentive, encourage, bureaucracy, require, consult, economy, addition, expect, process, increase.

Text B

Other societies have a command economy — one where a central authority makes most of the What, How and for Whom decisions.

Economic decisions are made at the top and people are expected to go along with1 choices made by their leaders. It means that major economic choices are made by the government. It decides goals for the economy and determines needs and production quotas for major industries. If the planning body wants to stress growth of heavy manufacturing, it can shift resources2 from consumer goods to that sector. Or, if it wants to strengthen national defence, it can direct resources from consumer goods or heavy manufacturing to the production of military equipment and supplies.

The major advantage of a command system is that it can change direction drastically in a relatively short time. The major disadvantage of the command system is that it does not always meet the wants and needs of individuals.

The second disadvantage of the command economy is the lack of incentives3 that encourage people to work hard. In most command economies today workers with different degrees of responsibility receive similar wages. In addition4, people seldom lose their jobs regardless of5 the quality of their work. As a result, there is a tendency for some to work just hard enough to fill production quotas set by planners.

The command economy requires a large decision-making bureaucracy. Many clerks, planners, and others are needed to operate the system. As a result, most decisions cannot be made until a number of people are consulted, or a large amount of paperwork is processed. This causes production costs6 to increase and decision-making to slow down. Thus, a command system does not have the flexibility to deal with day-to-day problems.
COMMENTS

1. ... people are expected to go along with сподiваються, що люди приєднаються

2. to shift resources — перемiстити ресурси

3. the lack of incentives — брак стимулiв

4. in addition — до того ж; крім того

5. regardless of незважаючи на

6. production costs — витрати виробництва
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Define the parts of speech of the following words:

economy, economic, authority, leader, production, large, responsibility, drastically, decide, decision, to stress, defence, military, equipment, advantage, incentive, relatively, different, tendency, to increase.

II. Form the new words using suffix -ity:

similar, personal, fertile, productive, responsible, able, provincial, active, stable, special, flexible, equal, scarce, possible.

III. Give the English equivalents for:

кoмандна економiка; економiчний вибiр; плановi органи; змiцнювати нацiональну оборону; центральнi керiвнi органи; визначати потреби; основнi галузi промисловостi; перемiщати ресурси; важка промисловiсть; споживчi товари; вiйськове устаткування; у вiдносно короткий промiжок часу; рiшуче змiнювати напрям; задовольняти бажання та потреби людей; заохочувати людей наполегливо працювати; брак стимулів; ви-
трати виробництва; незважаючи на; якiсть роботи; великий бюрократич­ний апарат, що приймає рiшення; займатися щоденними проблемам; керувати системою; рiзний рiвень вiдповiдальностi.

  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Economic decisions are made ... the top and people are expected to go ... choices made ... their leaders. 2. The government decides goals ... the economy and determines needs and production quotas ... major industries.
3. In most ... command economies people ... lose jobs regardless ... the quality ... their work. 4. As a result, there is a tendency ... some to work ... hard enough to fill ... production quotas set ... planners. 5. A command system does not have the flexibility to deal ... day-to-day problems.

  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. In a command economy decisions are made ... . 2. It means that ... .
3. Government decides ... . 4. If the planning body wants to strengthen national defence, it can ... . 5. The major advantage of a command system is ... . 6. The major disadvantage of a command system is ... . 7. The second disadvantage of the command economy is ... . 8. The command economy requires ... .

  1. Answer the following questions:

1. Who makes most of What, How and for Whom decisions in a command economy? 2. Who determines needs and production quotas for major industries? 3. What is the major advantage of a command system?
4. What disadvantages does the command economy have? 5. What does the command economy require? 6. The command system doesn’t have the flexibility to deal with day-to-day problems, does it?

VII. Retell the text B using the following words and

word-combinations:
command economy; central authority; to go along with smth; production quotas; major economic choices; major industries; to direct resources; to stress growth of heavy manufacturing; to strengthen national defence; in a relatively short time; to change direction drastically; consumer goods; to determine needs; to meet the wants and needs of individuals; the lack of incentives; regardless of; to shift resources; to operate the system; a large decision-making bureaucracy; production costs; to deal with day-to-day problems.
reading drILLS
1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

market, interest, buyer, seller, price, profit, final, flexible, trend, quality, level, business, switch, money, goods, services, government, care, lack, slowly, generally;

b) stress the second syllable:

arrangement, conduct, adjust, transaction, efficient, significant, supply, decline, reverse, exist, involve, incredible, variety, available.
Text C

In a market economy, the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce are made by individuals and firms acting in their own best interests. In economic term a market is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to come together to conduct transactions1.

Since consumers like products with low prices and high quality, producers in a market economy will try to supply such products. Those who make the best products for the lowest prices will make profits2 and stay in business3. Other producers will either go out of business or switch to4 different products consumer can buy.

A market economy has several major advantages that traditional and command economies do not have. First, a market economy is flexible and can adjust to change over time.

When gas prices in the United States began to level off in 1985 and then decline in 1986, the trend slowly began to reverse.

The second major advantage of the market economy is the freedom that exists for everyone involved. Producers are free to make whatever they think will sell. They are also free to produce their products in the most efficient manner. Consumers on the other hand are free to spend their money or buy whatever goods and services they wish to have.

The third advantage of the market economy is the lack of significant government intervention. Except for national defence, the government tries to stay out of the way5. As long as there is competition among producers, the market economy generally takes care of itself.

The final advantage of the market economy is the incredible variety6 of goods and services available to consumers. In fact, almost any product can and will be produced so long as there is a buyer for it.
COMMENTS

1. to conduct transactions — проводити дiловi операцiї

2. to make profits — отримувати прибуток

3. to stay in business — залишатися в бiзнесi

4. to switch to переорiєнтуватись

5. to stay out of the way не втручатися

6. incredible variety — неймовiрна рiзноманiтнiсть
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. to conduct transactions

2. in the most efficient manner

3. to act in one’s own best interests

4. to stay out of the way

5. to make profits

6. the lack of significant

government intervention

7. to adjust to change over time

8. to stay in business

9. incredible variety

10. to switch to

11. on the other hand

12. market economy

а. отримувати прибуток

б. проводити дiловi операцiї

в. з іншого боку; у свою чергу

г. неймовiрна рiзноманiтнiсть

д. не втручатися

е. працювати для власної
вигоди

є. залишатися в бiзнесi

ж. переорiєнтуватися

з. найбiльш ефективним способом

и. ринкова економіка

і. змiнюватися з часом

ї. брак значного втручання уряду

Match the synonyms:

a buyer, to desire, to make profits, to take care (of), to supply, to conduct transactions, interest, considerable, a purchaser, to allow, benefit, to get profits, variety, to manufacture, to arrange a deal, to provide (with), significant, to look after, tendency, lack, intervention, to permit, diversity, to produce, interference, trend, to wish, absence.

  1. Match the antonyms:

to sell, advantage, high prices, to spend money, to decline, flexible, to go out of business, to save money, disadvantage, low prices, worst, to buy, credible, variety, best, uniformity, inflexible, to stay out of the way, incredible, available, to meddle with other people’s business, unavailable, to stay in business, to level off.

  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. In a market economy, the questions ... What, How and ... Whom to produce are made ... individuals and firms acting ... their own best interests. 2. A market economy is flexible and can adjust to change ... time. 3. Since consumers like products ... low prices and high quality, producers ... a market economy will try to supply such products. 4. Those who make the best products ... the lowest prices will stay ... business. 5. The second major advantage ... the market economy is the freedom that exists ... everyone involved. 6. Except ... national defence, the government tries to stay ... the way. 7. As long as there is competition ... producers, the market economy generally takes care ... itself. 8. The final advantage ... the market economy is the incredible variety ... goods and services available ... consumers.

  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. In a market economy the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce are made by ... . 2. In economic term a market is ... . 3. Since consumers like products with low prices and high quality, ... . 4. Those who make the best products for the lowest prices ... . 5. Other producers will either go out of business or ... . 6. A market economy has ... . 7. The first advantage of the market economy is ... . 8. The second major advantage of the market economy is ... . 9. Consumers are free to spend their money or ... . 10. The third advantage of the market economy is ... . 11. As long as there is competition among producers, ... . 12. The final advantage of the market economy is ... .

VI. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. economic system

a. An economic system that allocates scarce resources according to custom.

2. traditional economy

b. An economic system in which major decisions concerning the allocation of resources are made by agencies of the government.

3. command economy

c. The approach a country uses to deal with

scarcity and achieve its economic goals.

4. business

d. The production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for a profit.

5. consumer

e. The rivalry among buyers and sellers in the purchase and sale of resources and products.

6. competition

f. A person who buys and uses goods or services.

7. market

g. The difference between revenues and

operation costs incurred by a business.

8. profit

h. Place where buyers and sellers come

together to conduct transactions.




  1. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. A market exists

a. where consumers express their needs and wants.

b. when products are advertised.

c. where merchants build shops.

d. where buyers and sellers exchange goods and services.

2. Individuals and businesses have the greatest say about what is produced in

a. market economies.

b. traditional economies.

c. command economies.

d. all economic systems.

3. The special role of the profit motive in a market economy is that, it

a. drives sellers to produce what buyers want.

b. results in high prices.

c. discourages people from taking risks.

d. keeps people from going into business.

4. In another country, privately owned business firms can produce goods or services in any lawful manner that they choose.

This country has

a. a market economy.

b. a traditional economy.

c. a command economy.

d. a mixed economy.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. Who asks the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce in a market economy? 2. What is a market in economic term? 3. Who will stay in business in a market economy? 4. What advantages does market economy have? Explain it in details. 5. What does the final advantage of the market economy consist in?

IX. Translate into English:

1. Ринкова економiка має кiлька головних переваг, яких нема в традицiйнiй та команднiй економiках. 2. Коли цiни на газ у Сполучених Штатах вирiвнялися в 1985 р. i потiм упали в 1986 р., то ця тенденцiя повiльно почала змiнюватися в протилежному напрямку. 3. Одна з головних переваг ринкової економiки полягає у свободi, яка iснує для кожного пiдприємця. 4. Оскільки споживачам подобаються товари за низькими цiнами i високої якостi, виробники за ринкової економiки намагатимуться постачати саме такi товари. 5. Уряд намагається не втручатися в жодні галузi, крім нацiональної оборони. 6. У ринковiй економiцi майже будь-який товар може бути i буде виготовлений, поки на нього є покупець.
COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

All countries have developed economic systems (ways of producing and distributing goods and services). Economic systems are used to answer the three basic economic questions:

Different types of economic systems have different mechanisms (methods) for answering these questions. Summarize the three types of Economic Systems.

Use the table given below:

Type of
economic system


What
to produce?


How
to produce?


For whom
to produce?


Market
economy


Business firms produce goods and services
that consumers are willing and able to buy for prices that will yield profits for the firms.

Seeking to compete profitably in the marketplace, individual business owners decide what combinations of productive resources (land, labour,capital and entrepreneurship) they will use in producing goods and services.

Finished goods and services are distributed to individuals and households who are willing and able to buy them.

command economy

A central planning authority (government agency) decides what goods and services to produce.

A central planning authority (government agency) decides what combinations of productive resources will be used in producing goods and services.

A central planning authority (government agency) decides who will receive the goods and services that are produced.

traditional economy

The goods and services produced today are the same as those produced in previous generations.

The combinations of productive resources used in producing goods and services are the same as those in past generations.

Finished goods and services are traded locally for other finished goods and services.


GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Past Perfect Tense

I. Answer the following questions:

1. Where had you lived before you came to Kyiv? 2. What language had you studied before you began to study English? 3. What grammar material had you studied before you began to study the Past Perfect Tense? 4. Where had you studied before you entered the University? 5. What English books had you read by the begginning of the second term? 6. How many English words have you learnt by the end of the term? 7. What had you done by nine o’clock last night?

  1. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. Kate had done her lessons by eight o’clock. 2. The girls had cleaned the rooms by the time their mother came back. 3. He had studied English before he entered the University. 4. My roommates had finished dinner by the time I got home. 5. They had bought all necessary goods before noon. 6. By that time mother had prepared dinner. 7. The students had left when the teacher came. 8. We had reached the village before the sun set.

  1. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. We had discussed all the questions by the end of the week. 2. He had made an appointment with Mr. Black by that time. 3. My friend had passed all his exams by the end of December. 4. The students had finished their work by six o’clock yesterday. 5. The teacher had looked through all the exercises by the time the lesson began. 6. They went home after the ship had disappeared. 7. The doctor had examined ten patients by three o’clock. 8. Everybody had finished his work by the appointed time.

IV. Transform the sentences according to the Patterns:

Pattern A: He left Kyiv at the end of May.

He had left Kyiv by the end of May.

1. He returned to Kyiv at the end of February. 2. They settled the matter on May 15th. 3. She finished reading the novel last Friday. 4. They visited most of the museums last Saturday.
Pattern B: They got to the station. The train left. (when)

When they got to the station the train had left.

1. He went to Washington. He made a reservation at the Hilton. (before) 2. He graduated from the University. He went to Washington. (after) 3. Victor worked on the farm. He joined the army. (before) 4. Ann spent a year in Paris. She could speak French very well. (after)
Pattern C: She entered the University. (Her friends knew)

Her friends knew that she had entered the University.

1. Nothing happened to them. (We hoped) 2. The guests left late at night. (she said) 3. Ann got a poor mark in English. (Everybody knew) 4. They made an excursion to Chernihiv. (We knew) 5. Robert told a lie. (I thought)
6. Our football team won the game. (I was happy).

V. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my fur coat. 2. After the sun had set we went home. 3. The professor had reviewed the material before he gave the quiz. 4. The concert hadn’t begun when we came. 5. He had learnt English well before he went to England. 6. By six o’clock I had learnt all the words. 7. They had gone to bed when somebody knocked at the door. 8. I couldn’t recognize him as I had not seen him since we studied at the Institute together. 9. He didn’t think that the boy had grown so much. 10. At last I learnt what had happened to my friend.
VI. Complete the sentences according to the Pattern:

Pattern: Mary told us a story she ... .

Mary told us a story she had never told us before.

1. At their dinner party we met some people we ... . 2. The dinner was quite unusual, I ate something ... . 3. She spoke of something she ... . 4. I went for a walk and decided to take the road I ... . 5. The lecture was very interesting, we heard something we ... . 6. He showed us the pictures he ... .


  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite, Past

Continuous or Past Perfect:

1. It (to rain) hard last night when I (to leave) the office. 2. I (to shout) to him to stop, but he (to run) too fast and not (to hear). 3. The telegram (to arrive) five minutes after you (to leave) the house. 4. He (not to see) me as he (to read) when I (to come) into the room. 5. We (to walk) to the station when it (to begin) to rain. 6. When he was in the country he (to visit) the places where he (to play) as a boy. 7. He (to thank) me for what I (to do) for him.
VIII. Translate into English:

1. Я знала, що вона розмовляла з моїм батьком. 2. Викладач сказав, що перевірив наші твори. 3. Мої друзі подякували мені за те, що я для них зробив. 4. Мій брат писав, що вже склав іспит з англійської мови. 5. На п’яту годину всі вже прийшли на вокзал. 6. Учора я закін­чила всю роботу до 12 години. 7. Вони сказали, що приїхали сюди поїздом. 8. Раптом вона згадала, що забула вимкнути світло. 9. Мину­лого літа я їздила в село, де провела своє дитинство. 10. Вона була певна, що бачила цю жінку раніше, але не могла пригадати, де вона її бачила. 11. Діти повернулися додому до того, як розпочався дощ. 12. Я не знала, що моя подруга ніколи не була за кордоном.
The Future Perfect Tense

IX. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. They will have passed their examinations by the first of July. 2. They will have answered all the questions by the end of the lesson. 3. She will have given the final answer before you return. 4. He will have caught fish in the lake by the end of the day. 5. She will have done this work by the time fixed. 6. You will have translated the sentences before the bell rings. 7. The meeting will have ended by six o’clock.

X. Change the following sentences into the Future Perfect:

1. I had written the composition by nine o’clock. 2. They had learnt all the words by seven o’clock. 3. The match had finished by that time. 4. She had made a new dress by the end of the week. 5. The students had passed all their credit-tests by the sixth of June. 6. They had prepared everything by the end of the year. 7. We had shipped the goods by that time. 8. The director had signed all the documents by that time.

XI. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. As soon as we have had dinner, we shall go for a walk. 2. By this time tomorrow he will have crossed the channel and will be in England.
3. He hasn’t done this work yet, but he’ll have done it by the time fixed.
4. At the rate he is going he will have spent all his money by the time he is twenty-one. 5. I shall have a talk with you after I have written this letter.
6. After this performance I shall have seen Hamlet twenty-two times. 7. In a fortnight’s time we shall have taken our exam.

XII. Translate into English:

1. Я сподіваюсь, що до кінця зборів ми владнаємо це питання.
2. Аж поки ти приїдеш додому, то забудеш усе, що я тобі казав. 3. До того часу ви мене забудете. 4. Вони (вже) закінчать роботу, коли ми прийдемо. 5. Студенти вже складуть іспити до першого липня. 6. Поїзд вирушить до того, як ми приїдемо на станцію. 7. Вони збудують новий гуртожиток для студентів до початку навчального року. 8. Ми не поверне­мося з поїздки до кінця місяця. 9. Вона прибере квартиру до їхнього приїзду. 10. Поки вона приїде, я буду жити на півдні вже два тижні.
Indefinite Pronouns: some, any, no, none

XIII. Answer the following questions:

1. Have you any brothers or sisters? 2. Can any of your friends speak German? 3. Have you got any English books? 4. Have you read any English books this year? 5. Did you have any lessons yesterday? 6. Is there anything on your table now? 7. Did you invite anybody to your last birthday party?
8. Did anybody invite you to dinner last week? 9. Are there any trees in front of your house? 10. Have you got any questions?

XIV. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. I read some English magazines yesterday. 2. She has received some letters from him lately. 3. There is some milk in that jug. 4. They have brought her some interesting books to read. 5. She knows something about it. 6. There are some dictionaries on the shelf. 7. Someone is knocking at the door. 8. Some of the students were late to class. 9. Someone has told you the secret. 10. There were some new words in that text.

XV. Сhange the following sentences into the negative in two ways:

Pattern: I have some problems.

I don’t have any problems. — I have no problems.

1. I have some money. 2. There was some food. 3. We have some time to waste. 4. I trust someone. 5. There was someone in his room. 6. I saw someone. 7. I need some help. 8. I received some letters from home. 9. I have read some books on this subject. 10. Mary bought something at the store. 11. She can find somebody who knows about it.

XVI. Complete the sentences with any and its derivatives:

Pattern: I don’t mind what you tell him. You can tell him ... .

You can tell him anything you like.

1. I don’t mind what you wear to the party. You can wear ... .

2. It doesn’t matter which day you come. You ... .

3. I don’t mind where you sit. You can ... .

4. I don’t mind who you talk to. You ... .

5. I don’t mind who you marry. You ... .

6. It doesn’t matter what time you phone. You ... .

XVII. Translate into Ukrainian:
1. I saw nobody in the classroom. 2. There has been no rain for several days. 3. Some of the books you gave me are very interesting, and some are not interesting at all. 4. He said nothing. 5. Is there any wine in the bottle?
6. She said nothing about it in her last letter. 7. Nobody expected him to come. 8. Is there anyone here who speaks Italian? 9. I’d like to buy some new clothes but I haven’t any money. 10. He’s not very well known here but he’s someone in his own country. 11. Come and have supper with us if you aren’t doing anything tonight. 12. He lives somewhere in France now.
13. The girl was too proud to ask anybody for help. 14. I haven’t any time to help you today. 15. I found no mistakes in your translation. 16. No steamer has left the port yet.

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Де я можу купити конверти? 2. Чи є ілюстрації в цьому журналі? — У цьому журналі немає ілюстрацій. 3. Деякі студенти першого курсу вже склали іспити. 4. Ви можете застати його тут будь-якого дня між п’ятою та шостою годинами. 5. Купіть мені масла та сиру, будь ласка.
6. Я не маю часу, щоб піти туди. 7. Хтось залишив двері відчиненими. 8. Ніхто з нас не піде туди сьогодні. 9. Нікого не було вдома, коли я повернувся. 10. Чому він не приніс мені води? Я просив його принести води, оскільки я дуже хочу пити. 11. Хтось приходив сюди, коли мене не було? — Ніхто не приходив, але хтось телефонував. 12. Ніхто з них не знав цього. 13. Жодний словник не міг допомогти йому. 14. Нічого особливого не трапилось учора. 15. Ще нічого невідомо про це.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect:

1. He (keep) looking at her, wondering where he (see) her before. 2. It was raining hard, but by the time class (be) over, the rain (stop). 3. Yesterday we (discuss) the film which we (see) some days before. 4. I (see) that my friends (go). 5. I was late. The teacher (give) already a quiz when I (get) to class. 6. He (tell) us many interesting things he (see) in Lviv. 7. The children (fall asleep) by ten o’clock. 8. I (feel) a little better after I (take) the medicine. 9. Mother (cook) supper by the time they (come) home. 10. He (be) a newspaper reporter before he (become) a businessman.

II. Complete the sentences, using the Past Perfect Tense:

1. He didn’t remember how it all (happen). 2. We were sure that she (tell the truth). 3. He said that his parents (always live in the country). 4. He told her that he (buy a TV set the year before). 5. I thought that he knew English well because he (live in England for some years). 6. The man at the station said that the train (leave already). 7. When he (finish his work) he went to bed. 8. When we came back, the telegram (arrive already). 9. He understood that he (get off at the wrong station). 10. The rain (stop already) when we started.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect Tense:

1. I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening. 2. By this time next year I (save) $250. 3. The train (leave) before we reach the station. 4. By the first of April she (be) in hospital for two weeks. 5. When you come back I (finish) all the housework. 6. By the end of my university course I (attend) 1,200 lectures. 7. If we don’t hurry the sun (rise) before we reach the top. 8. Come back in an hour. I (do) my packing by then and we’ll be able to have a talk.
9. By the end of the month 5,000 people (see) this exhibition. 10. If I continue with my diet I (lose) 10 kilos by the end of the month.
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite or

Future Perfect:

1. He (receive) the telegram tomorrow. 2. He (receive) the telegram by tomorrow. 3. By next winter I (save) the necessary sum of money. 4. I hope it (stop) raining by five o’clock. 5. I (do) the exercises by seven o’clock. 6. I (do) the exercises in the afternoon. 7. I am sure that they (complete) their work by May. 8. I am sure that they (complete) their work in May. 9. I (not work) at eight o’clock. 10. By this time you (take) your examination. 11. You (take) your examination next week. 12. The teacher (correct) our dictations by the next lesson.


  1. Fill in the blanks with some or any:

1. He bought ... stamps and ... envelopes. 2. I want to buy ... flowers, as we haven’t ... flowers in our garden this year. 3. Have you read ... good books lately? 4. There isn’t ... hot water in the kettle. 5. Will you have ... pudding or ... fruit? 6. Did you put ... salt in the soup? 7. Will you give me ... water, please? 8. He never puts ... sugar in his coffee. 9. He didn’t buy ... butter, but he bought ... cheese. 10. Give me ... money, please.

VI. Fill in the blanks with some, any and their derivatives:
1. Ann has bought ... new shoes. 2. Does ... mind if I smoke? 3. Would you like ... to eat? 4. Can I have ... milk in my coffee, please? 5. There is ... at the door. Can you go and see who it is? 6. I can’t see my glasses ... . 7. Are there ... letters for me? 8. Would you like ... more coffee? 9. ... can tell you how to get there. (Everyone knows the way.) 10. Don’t let ... in. I’m too busy to see ... . 11. ... tells me you’ve got ... bad news for me. 12. Here are ... letters for you. 13. Are there ... lemons in the cupboard? 14. There are ... oranges in the cupboard but there aren’t ... lemons. 15. Can you give me ... information about places to see in the town?
VII. Complete the sentences with something, someone, anything,

anyone, nothing or no one :

1. I have ______ in my pocket. 2. Do you have ______ in your pocket? 3. Bob doesn’t have ______ in his pocket. 4. There is ______ in my pocket. It’s empty. 5. I bought ______ when I went shopping yesterday.
6. Ann saw ______ in the park. 7. Alice didn’t buy ______ when she went shopping. 8. Did you buy ______ when you went shopping? 9. Ann didn’t tell ______ her secret. 10. Did Tom give you ______ for your birthday?
11. Tom didn’t give me ______ for my birthday. 12. Jane gave me ______ for my birthday. 13. I talked to ______ at the phone company about my bill. 14. My sister is writing a letter to ______ . 15. Did you talk to ______ about your problem? 16. My roommate is speaking to ______ on the phone.
VIII. Translate into English:
1. Я провів свою відпустку в маленькому селі на Дніпрі. Один мій друг порадив поїхати туди. 2. Вона приїхала до нашого міста три роки тому. До того часу вона вже закінчила університет. 3. Вона ска­зала, що знала його з 1980 року. 4. Я думав, що він знає англійську мову добре, тому що він жив у Англії кілька років. 5. Я був певен, що ніколи не бачив цю людину раніше. 6. Зачекайте трохи. Я попрошу когось купити молока та хліба. 7. Я нікого не чекаю сьогодні ввечері.
8. Хтось телефонував тобі сьогодні й хотів розповісти щось цікаве.
9. Ви можете дістати цю книжку в будь-якій бібліотеці. 10. Будь-хто може зрозуміти це. 11. Повідомте мене, коли щось трапиться.






U N I T 7 TOPIC: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
Учебный материал
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