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READING DRILLS 1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words: a) stress the first syllable:
TOPIC: AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND
GRAMMAR: The Participle. Forms and Functions
Complexes with the Participle
bring, single, aggregate, quality, quantity, adequate, motivated, labour, force, factor, natural, national, income, saving, trace, trends. b) stress the second syllable:
economy, economic, economist, producer, production, productive, affect, performance, investment, account, accounting, consume, consumption, amount, statistics, efficiency, combine, improve. Text A
Just as economists study the amount of goods and services brought to market by a single producer, they also study the total amount of goods and services produced by the economy as a whole. Thus, they examine aggregate supply1
— the total amount of goods and services produced by the economy in a given period, usually one year.
A number of factors affect an economy’s aggregate supply. Two of these are the quantity of resources used in production and the quality of those resources. For example, an economy must have an adequate supply of natural resources and capital goods to be productive2
It also needs a skilled and highly motivated labour force. A third factor affecting aggregate supply is the efficiency with which the resources are combined. If they are combined in a productive way, aggregate supply will increase.
In order to measure aggregate supply, statistics must be kept. To keep with this task economists use national income accounting3
— a system of statistics, that keeps track of production4
, consumption, saving and investment in the economy. National income accounting also makes it possible to trace long-run trends in the economy and to form new public policies to improve the economy.
The most important economic statistics kept in the national income accounts is Gross National Product (GNP). This is the dollar measure of the total amount of final goods and services produced in a year. It is one of the most important and comprehensive statistics kept on the economy’s performance5
1. aggregate supply
— сукупна пропозиція
2. to be productive
— щоб бути продуктивною
3. national income accounting
— розрахунок національного прибутку
4. ... keeps track of production
— слідкує за виробництвом
5. ... kept on the economy’s performance
— яка продовжує характеристику економікиVOCABULARY EXERCISES I. Find equivalents:
II. Match the synonyms:
1. adequate supply of natural resources
2. to keep with a task
3. final goods
4. to trace long-run trends
in the economy
5. skilled labour force
6. national income accounting
7. capital goods
8. to improve the economy
9. aggregate supply
total amount of goods
11. single producer
12.Gross National Product (GNP)
13. the quantity and the quality
а. загальна кількість товарів та послуг
б. кваліфікована робоча сила
в. засоби виробництва
г. відповідний (достатній) запас природних багатств
д. сукупна пропозиція
е. поліпшувати стан економіки
є. валовий національний продукт
ж. виконувати завдання
з. кількість і якість
и. розрахунок національного прибутку
і. окремий виробник
ї. готова продукція
й. намічати перспективні напрямки
adequate, to grow, skilful, to affect, goods, merchandise, amount, trend, to ameliorate, consider, to improve, sufficient, to trace, to increase, to influence, examine, manufacturer, tendency, total, quantity, to track, producer, aggregate, skilled. III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. Economists examine aggregate supply — the total amount ... goods and services produced ... the economy ... a given period. 2. A number ... factors affect ... an economy’s aggregate supply. 3. Two ... these are the quantity ... resources used ... production and the quality ... those resources.
4. ... order to measure aggregate supply, statistics must be kept. 5. One ... the factors affecting ... aggregate supply is the efficiency ... which the resources are combined. 6. The most important economic statistics kept ... the national income accounts is Gross National Product. 7. This is the dollar measure ... the total amount ... final goods and services produced ... a year.IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B: Column A Column B
V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement: 1. The GNP can best be described as a measure of
а. Goods ultimately bought and used by consumers.
2. capital goods
b. A measure of the nation’s total output of goods and services per year.
c. Something created to produce other goods and services.
4. final goods
d. Intangible item of value, such as the work of physicians, lawyers, teachers, actors.
5. labour force
e. A measure of how much we get what we use.
6. Gross National Product (GNP)
f. All the goods and services provided by the economy.
7. Aggregate Supply
g. A system of statistics, that keeps track of production, consumption, saving and investment in the economy.
8. national income accounting
h. Individuals, 16 years of age or older, working or looking for work.
a. the nation’s economic welfare.
b. the value of all goods and services produced in the country.
c. the retail value of all market production in the nation.
d. goods and services produced by the government. 2. A nation’s standard of living will rise if
a. GNP and population increase at the same rate.
b. GNP increases faster than population.
c. Population increases faster than GNP.
d. Production and consumption decrease.3. Assume that prices are rising while production remains unchanged. In these circumstances, GNP measured in current dollars will
b. remain the same.
d. cause prices to fall. VI. Complete the following sentences:
1. Economists examine aggregate supply ... . 2. The factors affecting aggregate supply are ... . 3. In order to measure aggregate supply, ... .
4. National income accounting is ... . 5. National income accounting also makes it possible ... . 6. The most important economic statistics kept in the national income accounts is ... . 7. Gross National Product is ... . VII. Answer the following questions:
1. What do economists study? 2. What is aggregate supply? 3. What factors affect an economy’s aggregate supply? 4. When will aggregate supply increase? 5. What must be kept in order to measure aggregate supply?
6. What is national income accounting? 7. What helps to trace long-run trends in the economy and form new public policies? What is it aimed at?
8. What is GNP? VIII. Translate into English:
1. Економісти розглядають сукупну пропозицію як загальну кількість товарів та послуг, вироблених, як правило, за один рік. 2. На сукупну пропозицію впливає кількість цих ресурсів. 3. Щоб бути продуктивною, економіка повинна мати відповідний (достатній) запас природних багатств та засобів виробництва. 4. Третій фактор, який впливає на сукупну пропозицію, — це ефективність, з якою комбінуються ресурси. 5. Розрахунок національного прибутку дає можливість накреслити перспективні напрямки в економіці і виробити нові напрямки державної політики, щоб поліпшити стан економіки. 6. Валовий національний продукт — це вартість у доларах усієї сукупності готової продукції та послуг, вироблених і наданих за рік. IX. Retell the text A using the following words and word-combinations:
a single producer; aggregate supply; total amount of goods and services; capital goods; adequate supply of natural resources; consumption, skilled and highly motivated labour force; national income accounting; efficiency; to keep track of production,
to keep with a task; final goods; to trace long-run trends in the economy; saving and investment; to form new public policies; to improve the economy; Gross National Product (GNP).READING DRILLS 1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words: a) stress the first syllable:
daily, complex, aggregate, output, concept, spending, household, occupy, boom, partnership, private, purchase; b) stress the second syllable:
advanced, behaviour, expenditure, proprietorship, responsible, external, produce, producer, product, production, productive, export, import, investment, investor, involve, decision, recession, computer.Text B
An advanced country like the United States is very complex. It involves millions of individual decision-making units1
— individuals, business and governments make billions of decisions daily.
Microeconomics is the branch of economics that deals with decision-making and other behaviour by these individual units. Another branch of economics, known as macroeconomics, deals with large groups or aggregates. Because GNP deals with the output of the country as a whole, it is macroeconomic concept.
As a first step in understanding the macroeconomy we think of the economy as being made up of several different parts called sectors. These sectors represent individuals, business, government and foreign markets. The sum of expenditures of these sectors is known as aggregate demand2
. When aggregate demand or spending falls over a period of one to two years, the economy tends to go into recession, while a rise in aggregate demand tends to lead to booms in the economy.
One sector of the macroeconomy is the consumer sector. The basic unit in this sector is the household, which is made up of all persons who occupy a house, apartment, or room.
A second sector is the business, or investment sector. It is made up of proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. It is the productive sector responsible for bringing the factors of production together to produce output.
A third sector in the macroeconomy is the government, or public sector. It includes the local, state and federal levels of government.
The foreign sector is the fourth sector of the macroeconomy. It includes all consumers and producers external in the United States3
The United States, for example, exports computers, airplanes, and farm products to foreign buyers. It also imports a large number of different items from foreign countries. It makes no difference whether foreign buyers are governments or private investors or if purchases are made from governments or private individuals. They are all part of the foreign sector.COMMENTS
1. decision-making units
— самостійна господарча одиниця, яка наділена правом приймати рішення
2. aggregate demand
— сукупний попит
3. external in the United States
— за межами Сполучених ШтатівVOCABULARY EXERCISES I. Form the new words using the following suffixes:
invest, govern, state, establish, fulfil, agree, advance, pay, develop;
product, object, act, mass, effect, compare;
- ion, - tion:
dominate, populate, substitute, promote, corporate, coordinate,
collect, include, combine, discuss, decide, produce, restrict, consume;
- er, or:
buy, produce, consume, invest, sell, supply, manufacture, manage, export;
proprietor, partner, leader, friend, member, owner. II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:
decision-making units; branch of economics; foreign markets; output of the country; as a whole; the sum of expenditures; aggregate demand; recession; GNP; boom; consumer sector; productive sector; foreign sector; public sector; investment sector; proprietorship; partnership; corporation; to produce output; to be responsible for; factors of production; farm products. III. Match the antonyms:
to export, income, to import, demand, to consume, to produce, supply, private sector, expenditure, buyer, external, microeconomics, public sector, macroeconomics, boom, unlike, native, internal, different, recession, similar, like, foreign, seller. IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B: Column A Column B
V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement: 1. An increase in aggregate demand would most likely mean
a. A fall in business activity lasting more than a few months, causing stagnation in a country’s output.
b. Quantity of goods and services produced or provided by a business organization or economy.
3. aggregate demand
c. The study of the individual parts of the economy, with special attention to the market process and how it works.
d. The total demand for goods and services in
e. The peak of the business cycle; the economy is expanding and aggregate demand is rising quickly.
f. The study of the economy as a whole.
7. public sector
g. Regular fluctuations in the level of economic activity in an economy.
h. Part of the economy that is owned and controlled by the state, namely central government, local government, and government enterprises.
9. business cycle
i. Using money to purchase real capital (equipment, new tools, industrial buildings) to be used in the production of goods and services.
an increase in spending by
d. all of them. 2. The macroeconomy is:
a. government’s share of the nation’s output.
b. goods and services that are produced but not sold in the marketplace.
c. everything produced in the nation.
d. none of these. 3. Rising unemployment, together with a reduction in business spending and production, is characteristic of
d. expansion. VI. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms from the list:
aggregate demand; recession; decision-making; economics; corporations; consumers; items; services; proprietorships; the public sector; producers; goods; booms; the private sector.
1. Microeconomics is the branch of ________ that deals with ________ and other behaviour by these individual units. 2. The sum of expenditures of these sectors is known as _________ . 3. When aggregate demand or spending falls over a period of one to two years, the economy tends to go into ________ , while a rise in aggregate demand tends to lead to ___________ in the economy. 4. The business, or investment sector is made up of __________ , partnerships, and ___________ . 5. In a free market economy, __________ is responsible for allocating most of the resources within the economy. 6. Most _________ and __________ provided by __________ in any economy are allocated on the basis of need rather than on ability to pay. 7. Foreign sector includes all _________ and _______ external in the United States. 8. The United States imports a large number of different _________ from foreign countries. VII. Complete the following sentences:
1. Microeconomics is ... . 2. Macroeconomics deals with ... . 3. As a first step in understanding the macroeconomy we think of the economy as ... . 4. These sectors represent ... . 5. The sum of expenditures of these sectors is known as ... . 6. One sector of the macroeconomy is ... . 7. The basic unit in this sector is ... . 8. A second sector is ... . 9. It is the productive sector responsible for ... . 10. The government sector includes ... . 11. The foreign sector includes ... . 12. The United States exports ... . VIII. Answer the following questions:
1. What does microeconomics deal with? 2. Macroeconomics, deals with large groups or aggregates, doesn’t it? 3. Why is GNP (Gross National Product) considered as macroeconomic concept? 4. What do the sectors of the macro-economy represent? 5. What is the basic unit in the consumer sector? 6. What is the business or investment sector made up of? 7. Is the business sector of the economy responsible for bringing the factors of production together to produce output? 8. What does the government, or public sector include? 9. Does the foreign sector include all consumers and producers
external in the United States? 10. What does the United States export? IX. Translate into English:
1. Мікроекономіка — це галузь економіки, зв’язана із прийняттям рішень та іншими діями самостійних господарських одиниць, які наділені правом приймати рішення. 2. Сума витрат секторів макро-економіки відома як сукупний попит. 3. Основна одиниця споживчого сектору — домашнє господарство. 4. До складу сектору бізнесу або капіталовкладень входять одноосібна власність, партнерство та корпорації. 5. Третій сектор макроекономіки — це урядовий або громадський сектор, який включає місцевий уряд, уряд штату та федеральний уряд. 6. До складу зовнішнього сектору входять усі споживачі та виробники за межами Сполучених Штатів.
X. Replace the Ukrainian words and phrases by suitable English equivalents in the correct form. Retell the passage:
(Макроекономіка) is the study of the functioning (економіки в цілому), and it deals mainly with the total output and income of the economy, (загальним рівнем занятості), and movements in the average level of all prices. The heart of macroeconomics consists of analyzing the determinants of (сукупної пропозиції) and (сукупного попиту).
In the short run, the main problem in macroeconomics is why (сукупний попит) sometimes exceeds (сукупну пропозицію), thereby bringing on (інфляцію), and why aggregate demand sometimes falls short of aggregate supply, thereby bringing on (безробіття) and deflation — or at least less inflation. Over the long run, macroeconomics is concerned primarily with (економічним зростанням) — increases in the productive capacity of the economy and in average (реальним доходом) per person. GRAMMAR EXERCISES The Participle. Forms and Functions I. Give all the participial forms of the following verbs:
to produce, to study, to increase, to receive, to make, to solve, to provide, to say, to use, to sell, to pay, to negotiate, to write, to give, to enter.
Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the place of
a) a writing student; the financing organization; the countries importing raw materials; the rising sun; disappointing news; activities relating to wealth; an exciting story; a developing country; the approaching train;
b) the purchased models; an unanswered question; the contract fulfilled by the firm long ago; the models required by customers at present; an accepted plan; a desired object; sold goods; the film shown yesterday; satisfied needs and wants; a tax levied on consumer purchases; a discussed problem. III. Replace one of the predicates by Participle I: Pattern: She looked at me and smiled. — She looked at me smiling.
1. The girls walked home and sang
. 2. The man read a book and made notes
from time to time. 3. The children ran about and shouted
. 4. He turned over the pages of a book and looked at
the pictures. 5. The children sat and watched
television. 6. The girl spoke and trembled
. 7. She walked around and said nothing
. IV. Replace the parts in bold type by Participle Phrases: Pattern A: The man who is talking with the students is our lecturer. The man talking with the students is our lecturer.
1. Do you know the woman who is coming toward us
? 2. It always gives me pleasure to help the students who work hard
. 3. A person who brings good news
is always welcome. 4. The girl who is sitting next to me
is Mary. 5. They passed a group of workers who were repairing the road
. 6. The scientists who will take part in the conference
must submit their abstracts. 7. He couldn’t fall asleep because of the noise that was coming from the street
. 8. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain
are getting wet. 9. The windows that face the garden
were open. 10. She got on the train that was going to Paris
. Pattern B: While I was waiting for you, I read this magazine. While waiting for you, I read this magazine.
1. When they accepted the invitation to participate in the exhibition
, they wrote a reply. 2. When I heard the news
, I phoned him. 3. When Nick studied at the University
, he published several scientific articles. 4. When he arrived at the station
, he didn’t find anyone to meet him. 5. When I entered the lecture hall
, I saw some students who were waiting for me.
6. When you exchange opinions with other people
, you enrich your mind. 7. While he was skating yesterday
, he fell and hurt himself. 8. While he was walking along the street
, he met his old friend. Pattern C: The car which is parked in front of the house is mine. The car parked in front of the house is mine.
1. I took the newspaper which was lying on the table
. 2. The decisions which were adopted at the conference
are supported by many scientists.
3. He has bought a computer which was made in Lviv
. 4. Service is a work which is performed for someone
. 5. This firm manufactures heavy machinery which is used in construction
. 6. A corporation is an institution which is established for the purpose of making profit
. 7. They work at the plant which was built last year
. 8. Did you get the message which concerned the special meeting
? Pattern D: As she said so she went out of the room. Saying so she went out of the room.
1. As he was very clever
, he realized his mistake at once. 2. As she was busy all the week
, she couldn’t answer the letters. 3. As he was late
, he had to excuse himself. 4. As he was working for the local newspaper
, he knew a lot about the town’s problems. 5. As he was a great book-lover
, he spent a lot of money on books. 6. As we were very tired
, we refused to go for a walk. 7. As she entered the garden
, she saw her father repairing the car. 8. As she had spent all her money
, she decided to go home. V. Translate into Ukrainian:
1. Translating the text, he wrote out new words. 2. Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money. 3. Having been shown the wrong direction, he lost his way. 4. If asked, he will explain you everything. 5. She was walking slowly stopping sometimes to have a short rest. 6. Having found a hotel, they looked for somewhere to have dinner. 7. Being busy, he had to refuse our invitation. 8. Jim hurt his arm playing tennis. VI. Define the forms of the Participle:
1. The man speaking
to the students is our dean. 2. Being
unable to help I went home. 3. The textile goods produced
by the factory are in great demand. 4. Having lived
in that town all his life, he knew it very well.
5. Having spent
all the money he started looking for work.
6. Having completed
their tests, the students handed them in. 7. The price paid
for the use of labour is called wages. 8. The article being typed
now, will be published tomorrow. 9. The cars being produced
at our plant now are very good.
10. There are two factors affecting
the wage rate. 11. Most of the scientists invited
to the conference were leading specialists in various branches of economics. 12. Having been told
to wait, she waited. VII. Translate into English:
1. Будьте уважні, коли переходите вулицю. 2. Написавши твір, ми почали готувати інше завдання. 3. Після того як посилку запакували, її віднесли на пошту. 4. Помітивши мене, вона зупинилася. 5. Вона швидко вийшла з кімнати, зачинивши за собою двері. 6. Вона йшла стежкою, що вела до річки. 7. Студенти, які не приділяють належної уваги граматиці, ніколи не оволодіють мовою. 8. Знаючи, що в нього досить часу, він не поспішав. 9. Добре одягнутий незнайомець відразу привернув нашу увагу. 10. Пояснивши все детально, він спокійно сів на своє місце. 11. Ми сиділи в саду, розмовляючи про нашу поїздку до Англії. 12. Зрозумівши свою помилку, він перестав сперечатися. VIII. Define the functions of the Participle:
1. Studying economics the students got the better understanding of their future specialized subjects. 2. All the roads leading to the centre of the city were blocked by trucks. 3. Having finished our work we shall go for a walk. 4. They discussed the point when signing the contract. 5. Most of the goods produced in this factory are exported. 6. None of the people invited to the party could come. 7. There were a lot of foreign guests at the conference held in May. 8. We spent most of the time answering questions. 9. The sellers come to the market hoping for high prices. 10. Frightened by the dog, the child began to cry. 11. Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producer to consumer.
12. Negotiating the conditions of purchase, we informed the sellers that we needed the goods urgently. 13. At the entrance you will be met by a man holding a folded newspaper. 14. We sat down on the ground covered with dry leaves. 15. The specialists trained at our University are highly qualified. IX. Translate into English:
1. Я дивилась на дитину, що посміхалася. 2. Запаковані речі лежали на підлозі біля дверей. 3. Упізнавши мене, вона гукнула, щоб я зупинився і зачекав на неї. 4. Кінотеатр, який будується тут, буде одним із найбільших у нашому місті. Закінчивши лекцію, професор оглянув аудиторію, чекаючи на запитання. 6. Коли я ввійшов до кімнати, хлопчик збирав з підлоги скалки розбитої чашки. У нього був дуже наляканий виглід. 7. Оскільки він сам був веселою людиною, він умів підбадьорити інших. 8. «Я б хотіла, щоб мене правильно зрозуміли», — сказала вона, посміхаючись. 9. Хлопчика, що продавав газети, уже не було видно.Complexes with the Participle
X. Combine the two sentences into one using complexes with the Participle: Pattern: I saw him. He was walking along the street. I saw him walking along the street.
1. I saw him. He was leaving the room. 2. The man was trying to unlock the door. I noticed it. 3. We saw them. They were approaching the house. 4. He told a lie. Everybody heard it. 5. I felt her hand. It was trembling. 6. The birds were singing in the trees. She heard it. 7. He made a mistake. Nobody noticed it. 8. The children were swimming in the river. We watched it. XI. Use the Participal Complex instead of a Subordinate Clause: Pattern A: They considered that the picture had been stolen. The picture was considered stolen.
1. We found the safe locked and the papers stolen. 2. When I left her, she was greatly upset and worried. 3. I found her in her room. She was dressed for the party. 4. It could be considered that she was cured. 5. One can believe that the art of glass blowing has been forgotten. 6. We found the missing car. It had been abandoned on the highway. 7. We found the village. It had been burnt to the ground. 8. You will find the letter on your desk. It is signed and ready to be posted. Pattern B: I saw them as they were working in the garden. I saw them working in the garden. They were seen working in the garden.
1. We saw as you were passing our house. 2. I saw how he was entering the office. 3. I heard as they were speaking in the next room.
4. I found them as they were sitting together and talking peacefully. 5. I observed the boys as they were swimming across the river. 6. They watched him as he was repairing his car. 7
I noticed that he was standing near the door. 8. I heard that somebody is crying. XII. Translate into Ukrainian:
1. As he sat on the bank of the river he felt the wind getting colder and colder. 2. When I turned my head I saw him still standing in the doorway. 3. I noticed him giving her a quick look. 4. She watched him walking away until she could see him no more. 5. She was kept waiting for a long time. 6. Did you hear her making that unpleasant remark? 7. They want the goods shipped on Monday. 8. The children were found playing in the garden. 9. The workers are considered doing it. 10. The students were seen leaving the University. 11. She was noticed entering the department store. 12. A plane was heard flying high in the sky. XIII. Practise the following according to the pattern: Pattern A: Do you clean the windows yourself? No, I have the windows (them) cleaned.
1. Did you paint the house yourself? 2. Do you type the reports yourself? 3. Does he wash his car himself? 4. Do you cut the grass yourself? 5. Did you make your dress yourself? 6. Does she sweep the stairs herself?
7. Did he build the new garage himself? 8. Are you going to shorten the trousers yourself? Pattern B: My hair has grown long. (to cut) —- I must have it cut.
1. We are leaving tomorrow (to pack; all the things
). 2. My watch is five minutes slow (to repair
). 3. Their house looks ugly (to repaint
). 4. His teeth are uneven (to straighten
). 5. I don’t like your dress (to make
). 6. His suit is already dirty (to clean
). Pattern C: I cut my hair. — I had my hair cut. I must repair my TV set — I must have my TV set repaired.
1. I must clean my shoes. 2. He corrected his exercises. 3. She made her hat here. 4. The typist typed his article for him. 5. Does she make her dresses? 6. His wife washed and ironed his shirt. 7. We mended our alarm clock. 8. Did you clean your shoes? XIV. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:+ Pattern: He usually has his hair cut once a month. Does he usually have his hair cut once a month? He doesn’t usually have his hair cut once a month.
I have your taxi kept at the door. 2. She had her hair cut very short. 3. She had the slips printed. 4. I had the text tape-recorded yesterday. 5. I want to have my winter coat cleaned. 6. He had it all planned before. 7. You must have your bad tooth pulled out. 8. We had the letter sent there immediately. XV. Answer the following questions:
1. How often do you have your hair cut? 2. When did you last have your hair cut? 3. Where do you have your clothes made? 4. Where do you have your watch repaired? 5. When did you last have your watch repaired? 6. How often do you have your teeth examined? 7. Where do you have your photos taken? XVI. Translate into Ukrainian:
1. He had his luggage sent to the station. 2. How often do you have your carpets cleaned? 3. I’m having a new dress made. 4. I want it done as soon as possible. 5. We decided to have our photos taken after the final exam. 6. They found the door locked. 7. He won’t have anything changed here. 8. Where does she have her clothes made? 9. I usually have my hair cut once a month. 10. It’s time to have our linen washed. 11. Tell the secretary to have the report typed at once. 12. I think I must have my room papered. 13. I want to have my radio-set repaired. XVII. Translate into English:
1. Тут їй пошили плаття. 2. Де вам шили це плаття? 3. Як часто ви стрижетеся? 4. У нього вкрали документи минулого року. 5. Ми повинні розглянути це питання в понеділок. 6. Тут вам почистять пальто. 7. Тобі полагодили черевики? 8. Ми відремонтували квартиру до того, як поїхали на південь. 9. Вам потрібно випрасувати і почистити костюм. 10. Я роблю зачіску в перукарні щоп’ятниці. XVIII. Replace the Subordinate Clause by the Absolute Participle Complex: Pattern A: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk. The weather being fine, we went for a walk.
1. As it is rather cold, I put on my coat. 2. As the play was very popular, it was difficult to get tickets. 3. As my friend lives far from here,
I go to his place by bus. 4. As her son was ill, she could not go to the theatre. 5. As his mother teaches English, he knows the language very well. 6. As we specialize in economics, we must take an interest in all its latest achievements. Pattern B: As the bridge was destroyed, we could not cross the river. The bridge being destroyed, we could not cross the river.
1. As houses are built very quickly nowadays, we’ll soon get a new flat.
2. As all the shops were closed, we couldn’t buy anything. 3. As the road was being repaired, I couldn’t go there by bus. 4. As the book was being printed, we hoped to get it soon. 5. As the work was done, we went home. 6. As the letter was written, I went to post it. 7. As all preparations were made, they started the experiment. 8. As the report was written in French, we couldn’t understand one word. Pattern C: When the work had been done, they went home. The work having been done, they went home.
1. When the house had been built, we got a new flat. 2. As our teacher had visited India, we asked him to tell us about that country. 3. After the sun had risen, we continued our way. 4. As the road had been repaired, we couldn’t go there by bus. 5. As my friend had bought the tickets beforehand, we didn’t need to hurry. 6. When the waiting room had been cleaned, the passengers were let in. 7. As all the tickets had been sold out, we couldn’t see the performance. 8. As the key had been lost, she couldn’t get into the room. XIX. Translate into Ukrainian:
1. The work having been done, we received high salary. 2. The question being too difficult, no one could answer it. 3. The teacher being ill, the lesson was put off. 4. All this having been settled, he went home. 5. The preparations being completed, they began to climb up the mountain. 6. Time permitting, they will discuss the matter tomorrow. 7. It being Saturday, everyone went out of town. 8. The play being very popular, it was difficult to get tickets.
9. The moon being bright, everything was clearly visible. 10. Peter being away, Alexander had to do his work. 11. My task having been finished, I went to bed. 12. It being very stormy, they stayed at home. 13. The game having ended, the crowd went home. 14. The door being opened, he entered the house. 15. Dinner being over, we went into the garden. 16. The letter having been delayed, the news reached us too late. XX. Translate into English:
1. Коли завдання було виконано, я ліг спати. 2. Оскільки там нікого не було, я пішов. 3. Якщо дозволить погода, ми проведемо вихідний день у лісі. 4. Коли лекції закінчилися, студенти пішли додому. 5. Оскільки ніч була тепла, ми спали в саду. 6. Коли мій брат закінчив школу, ми переїхали до Києва. 7. Оскільки вітер дув з півночі, було дуже холодно. 8. Коли лист був підписаний, я відіслала його. 9. Оскільки мій брат узяв ключ, я не зміг увійти до будинку. 10. Оскільки було дуже холодно, вони розклали багаття. 11. Коли все було готове, ми почали експеримент.
12. Оскільки стежина загубилася у високій траві, вони зупинилися.
13. Оскільки мій друг загубив книжку, він не зміг підготуватися до занять. 14. Оскільки лист затримався, звістка дійшла до нас занадто пізно. 15. Оскільки телефон був несправний, я не зміг зателефонувати вам.
16. Коли батько прийшов, усі сіли за стіл обідати. EXERCISES for individual work I. Open the brackets, using the correct form of the Participle:
1. He didn’t pay any attention to the (to ring
) telephone. 2. The method (to follow
) by scientists was not simple. 3. (To find
) no one at home he went to his neighbours. 4. This is the book so much (to speak
) about. 5. A letter (to lie
) on the table must be posted. 6. (To obtain
) new results, they decided to publish them. 7. Never (to visit
) the place before, she got lost. 8. The house (to build
) at the corner of the street will be a library. 9. You needn’t repeat the lesson so well (to remember
) by everybody. 10. He sat in a comportable armchair (to smoke
) a cigarette. 11. (To read
) half the book, he fell asleep. 12. (To realize
) that she had missed the train the woman began to walk slowly. 13. It (to be
) very cold, they made a fire. 14. The book (to take
) from Petrenko is very interesting. II. Complete the sentences using the Participle or complexes with the Participle:
1. He noticed a man ... . 2. They watched the children ... . 3. He didn’t see her ... . 4. I didn’t notice you ... . 5. I’ve never heard you ... . 6. I didn’t see anybody ... . 7. The girl saw someone ... . 8. Here is the letter ... . 9. Where is the article ... . 10. She was seen ... . 11. The car stopped at the gate and we saw ... . 12. He will tell you eveything if ... . 13. ... He couldn’t say a word. 14. He was always angry when ... . III. Combine the two sentences into one using complexes with the Participle: Pattern: I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare. Knowing that he was poor, I offered to pay his fare.
1. She became tired of my complaints about the programme. She turned it off. 2. He found no one at home. He left the house in bad temper.
3. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. 4. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk.
5. She didn’t want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 6. We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park. 7. I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 8. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost. 9. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed. 10. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking. IV. Use the Participal Complex instead of a Subordinate Clause:
1. I noticed that she was speaking very coldly to him. 2. He saw that we were crossing the road in the wrong place. 3. It was pleasant to watch how they were enjoying themselves. 4. We heard that somebody was laughing in the next room. 5. Because of the noise nobody heard that the telephone was ringing. 6. We watched as they were repairing the car. V. Translate into English:
1. Ми живемо в місті, що засноване 1500 років тому. 2. Чули, як вона плакала. 3. Чоловік, який читав лекцію, показав багато діаграм.
4. Оскільки вистава була дуже популярною, важко було дістати квитки. 5. Я чув, як він піднімався сходами кілька хвилин тому. 6. Розбита чашка лежала на столі. 7. Я чув, як вона розповідала йому про це. 8. Отримавши телеграму, вони поїхали до Києва. 9. Він хоче полагодити черевики. 10. Він сидів у кріслі, читаючи газету. 11. Він поїхав, не обговоривши зі мною це питання. 12. Я помітив чоловіка, який відчиняв двері. 13. Вона пішла, не попрощавшись. 14. Оскільки погода була гарна, усі вікна було відчинено. 15. Усі бачили, як він біг вулицею, нікого не помічаючи. 16. Я роблю зачіску в перукарні щоп’ятниці. 17. Бачили, як вони фотографувалися після останнього іспиту. 18. Це сестра мого товариша, яка живе в квартирі по сусідству зі мною. 19. Він тихо зачинив двері, не бажаючи її будити. 20. Не отримавши від неї листа, він надіслав їй телеграму. 21. Переходячи через міст, я зустрів свого друга.
U N I T 14 TOPIC: AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND