Ответы на экзаменационные вопросы по грамматике английского языка - файл n1.doc

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Ответы на экзаменационные вопросы по грамматике английского языка
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part of a compound verbal predicate.

a) after modal verbs, modal expressions, and verbs expressing modality the Infinitive forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

She must speak now or not at all. (Cronin)

b) With verbs denoting the beginning, duration, or end of an action the Infinitive forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

Imprisonment began to tell upon him. (Dickens)

4. The Infinitive as an object is found after the verbs: to agree, to arrange, to ask (to request), to decide, to deserve, to expect, to fail, to forget, to hate, to help, to learn, to like, to manage etc.

The man agreed to serve as a witness.

5. The Infinitive as part of a complex object.

Old Jolyon saw his brother’s face change. (Galsworthy)

6. The Infinitive as an attribute in English modifies both abstract and class nouns, indefinite pronouns (somebody, something, anybody, anything etc.), ordinal numerals and the adjective last.

He was always the first to enter the dining- room and the last to

leave it. (Mansfield)

7. The Infinitive as an adverbial modifier.

a) The Infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of purpose.

I dressed and went out to buy the morning paper.

b) The Infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of result. This chiefly occurs after adjectives or adverbs modified by the adverbs enough and too.

It was dark enough to get lost.

c) The Infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of comparison (manner); in most cases with an additional meaning of purpose. In this function it is introduced by the conjunctions as if or as though.

She smiled mockingly and turned away, as though to go out.

d) The Infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.

She was driven away, never to revisit this neighbourhood. (Ch. Bronte)

8. The Infinitive as parenthesis.

To tell the truth, I’m sick and tired of this nonsense.
48. The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb, which has a verbal and an adjectival or an adverbial character. There are two participles in English– Participle I and Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle.

Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb; the following spelling rules should be observed:

a) If a verb ends in a mute e, the mute e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing:

to give — giving, to close — closing.

b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel rendering a short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix -ing:

to run—running, to forget—forgetting, to admit— admitting.

c) The verbs to die, to lie and to tie form Participle I in the following way: dying, lying, tying.

The verbal characteristics of the Participle are as follows:

1. Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object.

Opening the door, he went out on to the terrace. (Galsworthy)

2. Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb.

Leaving the room hurriedly, he ran out. (Thackeray)

3. Participle I has tense distinctions; Participle I of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. In Modern English Participle I has the following forms:
Active Passive

Indefinite reading being read

Perfect having read having been read

Like the tense distinctions of all the verbals, those of the participle are not absolute but relative.

. Participle I of transitive verbs has special forms to denote the Active and the Passive voice.

When reading a good book I do not like to be disturbed.

Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to make out.

Having written some letters he went to post them.
49. With a number of verbs and word-groups both the Gerund and the Infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, cannot bear, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

The young man began turning over the pages of a book. (Priestley)

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. The Gerund is of a more general, abstract character than the Infinitive.

The child was not afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid to remain alone on such a stormy night.

With the verb to remember the Infinitive usually refers to the future, and the Gerund to the past.

I remember seeing the book in many bookshops.

With the verb to stop the Infinitive and the Gerund have different syntactical functions. The Gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

They stopped talking when he came in. (Galsworthy

The Infinitive has the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.

She stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbour. (Dickens)

The gerund and the participle.

In most cases the differentiation between the Gerund and the Participle does not present any difficulty.

Unlike the Participle the Gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object, and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the Gerund and the Participle may be used, but the Gerund in these functions is always preceded by a preposition.

There are cases, when the differentiation between the Gerund and the Participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle used as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing-form: e. g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking-stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table, etc.

If we have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the ing-form: e. g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child, etc.
50. The use of the Infinitive without the particle to (the bare

Infinitive).

1.After auxiliary verbs.

Will you come?

We shall go there at once.

I don’t know.

2. After modal verbs except the verb ought.

May I have a cigarette?

If one cannot have what one loves, one must love what one has.

3. After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, to notice, to observe, to perceive etc.

He heard a blackbird sing.

4. After the verb to let.

Don’t let these thoughts drive you crazy.

Let us be the best friends in the world! (Dickens)

5. After the verb to make in the meaning of 'заставлять' and the verb to have in the meaning of заставлять, допускать, велеть:

What makes you think so? (Carter)

6. After the verb to know when its meaning approaches that of to see, to observe (the verb to know never has this meaning in the Present Indefinite).

Have you ever known me tell a lie?

7. After the verb to bid.

I bowed and waited, thinking she would bid me take a seat. (E. Bronte)

8. After the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but, cannot choose but.

She does nothing but grumble.

9. In sentences of a special type (Infinitive sentences) beginning with why.

Why not come and talk to her yourself? (Reade)
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