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Have you spoken to him?

Link verbs are verbs which to a smaller or greater extent have lost their meaning and are used in the compound nominal predicate: to be, to turn, to get, to grow, to remain etc.

The house was too big. (Galsworthy)

Transitive verbs take a direct object, i.e. they express an action that passes on to a person or thing directly. A direct object answers the questions What? or Whom? Only action verbs can be transitive. Here belong such verbs as to take, to give, to send, to make, to see, to show, to bring, to love, etc.

  1. A terminative verb expresses an action, which has a final aim in view, a certain limit beyond which the action cannot be continued. Here belong simple and composite verbs, such as to come, to bring, to build, to give, to take, to receive, to find, to fall, to kill, to die, to become, to stand up, to sit down, to come to.

  2. Non-terminative verbs denote a certain action, which does not imply any limit. Here belong such verbs as to live, to exist, to sleep, to love, to be, to have, to possess, to work, to speak, to respect, to hope, to sit, etc.


27. The use of the Present Indefinite.

The Present Indefinite is used to denote:

1. Customary, repeated actions. This is its most characteristic use.

I usually go away at weekends.

The repeated character of the action is often shown by adverbials such as every day, often, usually, etc.

2. Permanent actions or states (continuing for a long time), characterizing the subject.

She sings and plays the piano beautifully.

He is so lazy. He doesn’t do anything to help me.

Universal truths, something that is eternally true.

Magnet attracts iron.

The earth rotates round its axis.

4. Actions going on at the present moment:

a) with verbs not used in the Continuous form.

I see George in the street. Tell him to come in.

A future action:

a) In adverbial clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions when, till, until, before, after, as soon as, as long as, if, unless, on condition that, provided.

Robert, will you mend me a pen or two before you go? (Ch.Bronte)

with verbs of motion, such as to go, to come, to leave and aspect verbs such as to begin, to finish etc. to speak about fixed future events (timetables, calendar):

The train leaves at 10 tomorrow.
28. The use of the Future Indefinite.

The Future Indefinite is used to denote a future action.

I am tired. I shall go and have a nap before dinner.

It will be much cooler up at Fiesole. (Voynich)

Note. – To denote a future action the word combinations to be going + Infinitive, to be about+ Infinitive and to be on the point of + Gerund are often used.

To be going to, to be about to, to be on the point of denote an action, which is, expected to take place in the nearest future. To be going to is colloquial, to be on the point of is literary.

This is going to be a cheerful evening. (Shaw)

The Future Indefinite is used:

a) To predict the future or to say what we think will happen:

Tomorrow will be another cold day.

) Will is used to express decision made at the moment of speaking:

«I’m going shopping.»– «Oh, are you? I’ll come with you, then.»

c ) Will also used to make statements of fact about the future:

I’ll be forty next month.

In general the Future Indefinite Tense is seldom used in Modern English. The tendency is to denote a future action either by means of the Present Continuous Tense or, which is most common, by means of the Future Continuous Tense, or by means of the word combination to be going to + Infinitive.
29. The Continuous form denotes an action in progress at the present moment or at a given moment in the past of future. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the required tense and Participle I of the notional verb.

The Present Continuous is used:

  1. To express an action going on at the present moment.

You can switch off the TV. I’m not watching it.

2. To denote a certain state or quality peculiar to the person at the moment of speaking.

You are being a nuisance.

3. To talk about planned future arrangements.

We are leaving at ten o’clock on Friday.

4. To express a continual process.

The Earth is always moving.

The Sun is ever shining.

5. To express an action thought of as a continual process (with the adverbs always, ever, constantly). The action is represented as going on without any interval.

She is always grumbling.

The Past Continuous is used:

1. To talk about an action that was in progress at a definite moment in the past.

«What were you doing at six o’clock last night?»

2. To talk about actions that were in progress when something else happened.

When I was leaving, the phone rang.

3. To denote a certain state or quality peculiar to the person at a given moment in the past.

He knew he was being restrained.

4. To denote an action thought of as a continual process (with the adverbs always, ever, constantly).

She was constantly complaining of being lonely.

5. Both the Past Continuous and the Past Indefinite can be used after such phrases as the whole day, all day long.

They were working in the garden all day long.

The use of the Future Continuous.

1. The Future Continuous is used to denote an action which will be going on at a definite moment in the future.

I’ll be having dinner at seven o’clock.

2. We use the Future Continuous for planned actions. In this meaning will be doing is similar to am doing.

I’ll be going to the city center later.

3. The Future Continuous is often used in Modern English in the same meaning as the Future Indefinite.

But my dear Ann, you will be getting into debt. (Wells)
30. The Perfect form denotes an action completed before the present moment (and connected with it) or before a definite moment in the past or future.

It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the required tense and Participle II of the notional verb.

The Present Perfect has three main uses.

1. It expresses an action that happened at some time in one’s life. The action is in the past and finished, but the effects of the action are still felt.

I’ve been to the States. (I still remember)

2. It expresses a past action that has a present result. The action is usually in the recent past.

I’ve lost my wallet. (I haven’t got it now)

The taxi hasn’t arrived (We are still waiting for it)

  1. The Present Perfect denotes an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is still going on.

Mr. Cowperwood, I have known you now for something like fourteen years. (Dreiser)

We have been engaged these four years. (Austen)

The use of the Past Perfect.

1. The Past Perfect denotes an action completed before a certain moment in the past.

After she had cried out, she felt easier. (Heym)

2. Sometimes the Past Perfect does not denote priority but only the completion of the action.

He waited until she had found the latchkey and opened the door.

3. The Past Perfect is used to denote an action, which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment.

a) with verbs not admitting of the Continuous form.

Examination convinced him that the deacon was dead — had been dead for some time. (Eliot)

b) in negative sentences. (In this case the Past Perfect Continuous is also possible, but not common.)

Those two had not spoken to each other for three days and were in a state of rage. (Bennett)

c) with non-terminative verbs such as to work, to live, to study, to teach, to travel, to last, etc. (In this case the Past Perfect Continuous is possible.)

The ride had lasted about ten minutes, when the truck suddenly swerved to a halt. (Heym)

The use of the Future Perfect.

1. The Future Perfect is used to show that an action will already be completed by a certain time in the future.

I will have retired by the year 2020.

2. The Future Perfect can denote an action? which will begin before a definite moment in the future, will continue up to that moment and will be going on at that moment.

By this time next week I will have worked for the company

for 24 years.

We will have been married a year on June 25th.
31. The use of the Past Indefinite.

The Past Indefinite denotes an action performed within a period of time, which is already over. The action is cut off from the present. The time of the action may be indicated by adverbials of past time, such as yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.

The sun came out a moment ago.

Miss Helstone stayed the whole evening. (Ch.Bronte)

The Past Indefinite is used to denote:

a) an action performed in the past.

Shakespeare died in 1616.

We went to the theatre last night.

When did she come?

b) a succession of past actions.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past perfective.

He threw down his spade and entered the house.

c) repeated actions in the past.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past imperfective.

He made an entry in his diary every night. (Bennett)

Sometimes used to denotes actions characterizing a person or action and states which lasted a long time.

I used to play tennis a lot but I don't play very often now.

Diane used to travel a lot. These days she doesn't go away so often.
32. The Perfect Continuous form denotes an action in progress, whose duration before a definite moment in the present, past or future is expressed. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in one of the perfect tenses and Participle I of the notional verb.

1. The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive is used to denote an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is still going on.

Ever since I saw you last I have been thinking, thinking.

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Exclusive denotes an action, which was recently in progress but is no longer going on at the present moment.

You are not well today. You look distressed. You have

been weeping. (Dickens)

1. The Past Perfect Continuous Inclusive denotes an action, which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment.

Our game of tennis was interrupted. We'd been playing for about half an hour when it started to rain very heavily.

2. The Past Perfect Continuous Exclusive denotes an action which was no longer going on at a definite moment in the past, but it had been in progress not long before.

Ken gave up smoking two years ago. He'd been smoking

for 30 years.

The Future Perfect Continuous denotes an action which will begin before a definite moment in the future, will continue up to that moment and will be going on at that moment.

In ten minutes we’ll have been waiting for the bus for

exactly an hour.
33. The Passive Voice is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the required form and Participle II of the notional verb.

The Passive Voice can be used:

a) without the doer of the action being mentioned for some special reasons (tact or delicacy of feeling).

Enough has been said here of a subject which will be treated more fully in a subsequent chapter.

b) when the doer of the action is unknown or unimportant

A lot of money was stolen in the robbery.

c) with the doer of the action being mentioned.

This house was built by my grandfather.

Uses of the Passive Voice peculiar to the English language.

1. The verbs to advise, to allow, to ask, to award, to deny, to envy, to forbid (rare), to forgive, to give, to grant, to offer, to order, to pay, to prescribe, to promise, to refuse, to show, to teach, to tell are used in the Passive Voice.

When I came a telegram was given to me.

A good job was offered to me but I had to turn it down.

The patient was prescribed a strict diet.

2. The Passive Voice is possible with intransitive verbs used with prepositions: to account for, to agree upon, to allude to, to arrive at (a conclusion, agreement, decision), to call for, to call upon, to comment upon, to count upon, to depend on (upon), to dispose of, to fire at, to hear of, to insist on (upon), to interfere with, to laugh at, to listen to, to look after, to look at, to look down upon (смотреть на кого-либо сверху вниз), to look up to (смотреть на кого-либо снизу вверх), to put up with (примириться), to read to, to refer to, to rely on, to run over, to send for, to speak about (of), to stare at, to talk about (to, over).

You have been a good deal talked about.

At last an agreement was arrived at.

3. The following verbal phraseological units can be used in the Passive Voice: to find fault with (придираться к кому-либо), to lose sight of (терять из виду), to make a fool of smb., to make fun of, to make use of (использовать), to pay attention to, to put an end to (положить конец), to set fire to, to take notice of, to take care of.

It’s all taken care of.

You are being made a fool of, that’s all.

The boat was soon lost sight of.

4. Quite peculiar is the case when the subject of the passive predicate corresponds to the Russian adverbial modifier. This is the case with the intransitive verbs to live and to sleep with the preposition in.

The occupant of the room was fully clothed, though the bed had been slept in.

5. There are a number of transitive verbs in English, which correspond to intransitive verbs in Russian. They are: to affect, to answer, to assist, to attend, to follow, to help, to influence, to join, to watch.

She was greatly affected by the scene.

The report was followed by a discussion
34. The combination to be+ Participle II can denote an action, in which case it is a simple predicate expressed by a verb in the Passive Voice. It can also denote a state, then it is a compound nominal predicate consisting of a link verb and a predicative.

It was very hot in the room because all the windows were

closed (nominal).

The door was closed at seven o’clock by the porter. (verbal)

It is sometimes difficult to discriminate between the verb to be+ Participle II as a simple predicate and as a compound nominal predicate.

1. We have the Passive Voice (simple predicate) in the following cases:

a) when the doer of the action is indicated (as a rule).

Other possibilities were considered by my colleagues.

b) when there is an adverbial modifier of place, frequency and, as a rule, of time.

The whole affair was soon forgotten.

The library door was opened at midnight.

c) when the verb is used in the Continuous or in the Perfect form.

What sort of research is being done, and who is doing it?

d) When the verb to be is associated with Participle II of non-terminative verbs like to love, to like, to respect, to honour, to hate:

He was most highly esteemed by Mr. Darcy. (Austen)

She is loved by all her friends.

e) When the predicate is in the Future tense (or Future in the Past)

The entrance door will be closed at seven.

2. We have a compound nominal predicate in the following cases:

a) usually when the verb to be is in the Present or Past Perfect Inclusive and the notional verb admits of the Continuous form.

Why don't you go and take the documents? They are ready.

b) when Participle II denotes a state of mind.

Elisabeth was distressed. (Austen)

I was surprised to see Mr. Darcy in town last month. (Austen)
35. The verb must has only one form. Must is used in present- time contexts with reference to the present and future and in combination with the Perfect Infinitive it refers to the past. In past- time contexts this form is used only in reported speech, i. e. the rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed with must.

And now I must go back to my social duties. (Voynich)

Must expresses obligation, necessity, an urgent command or prohibition, and a supposition bordering on assurance.

1. Obligation, necessity, duty (from the speakers point of view).

(a) due to circumstances

He must write. He must earn money. (London)

(b) arising out of the nature of man and consequently inevitable.

All experience tended to show that man must die. (Galsworthy)

2. A command, an urgent (emphatic) request or a prohibition. In this meaning it is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.

You must leave the room at once!

3. Probability or supposition bordering on assurance.

Surely, they don't want me for myself. Then they must want me for something else. (London)

John must be at the station by now.

In negative sentences supposition is expressed by means of the modal word evidently.

Evidently, she did not know my address.
36. The modal expression to have + Infinitive is used in three tenses: the Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite and the Future Indefinite. It is not a defective verb and can have all the necessary finite forms and verbals.

I have to get up at six every day.

I shall have to reconsider my position.

To have+ Infinitive expresses an obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. Its meaning is close to that of to be obliged. It is often rendered in Russian by приходится, должен, вынужден.

He is an invalid and has to have a nurse.

This modal expression is used in the Present Indefinite tense only.

I’ve got to go.

Have you got to go right now?
37. This modal expression can be used in two tenses—the Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite (was, were).

Dear Jim, I am to be shot at sunrise to-morrow.(Voynich)

1. An order which is generally the result of an arrangement made by one person for another, an arrangement which is not to be discussed. In this case only the Indefinite Infinitive is used.

You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of

this to anyone. (De la Roche)

2. An arrangement or agreement, part of a plan.

I'm sorry, Major, we had an agreement– I was to do the

questioning here. (Heym)

3. Possibility.

Her father was often to be seen in the bar of the Hotel Metropole.

4. Something thought of as unavoidable; something that is destined to happen.

He was to be my teacher and friend for many years to come.


38. 1. Compulsion or strict order.

In this meaning it is always used with the second and third persons and has a strong stress.

«You shall not run away before you answer!» (Shaw)

Tonight you shall be entirely English: you shall read an English book.

2. Threat or warning.

In this meaning it is also used in the second and third person and with a weak stress.

"That's the last time!" she cried. "You shall never see me again" (Maugham)

3. Promise.

It is also used with the second and third persons and with a weak stress.

Don't be afraid, Jane, I saw it was an accident. You shall not be punished. (Ch. Bronte)

I shall make you happy, see if I don't. You shall do what you like, spend what you like. (Thackeray)
39. The verb can has two forms: can for the Present Tense and could for the Past Tense; the expression to be able to which has the same meaning can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb can.

Can expresses ability or capability, possibility, incredulity or doubt, astonishment and permission.

1. Physical or mental ability.

The little boy could not open the heavy door.

2. Possibility.

a) due to circumstances:

I could not go to the theatre yesterday because I was busy.

From where he sat he could see a cluster of apple trees

in blossom. (Galsworthy)

b) due to the existing laws:

The more she studied, the less sure she became, till idly turning the pages, she came to Scotland. People could be married there without any of this nonsense. (Galsworthy)

3. Incredulity, doubt, astonishment (they are closely connected).

«That is not true!» exclaimed Linton, rising in agitation. «It cannot be; it is incredible, it cannot be(Ch. Bronte)

4. Permission.

Except in formal writing can is more common than may to express permission:

Can I use your car?

You can go now.

Can is also used to express permission for the future:

You can borrow my car tomorrow.
40. The verb may has two forms: may for the Present Tense and might for the Past Tense. The expressions to be allowed and to be permitted, which have the same meaning, can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb may.

"May I come along?" asked Karen. (Heym)

Jolyon thought he might not have the chance of

saying it after. (Galsworthy)

1. Permission.

May I use your phone? (Heym)

2. Uncertainty as to the fulfillment of an action, state or occurrence, supposition implying doubt.

He may be busy getting ready for his trip

3. Possibility due to circumstance's.

May is used in this sense only in affirmative sentences. Can is also possible in this meaning.

You may/ can order a taxi by phone.

  1. Reproach.

Only might is used in this meaning but not may.

You might lend me a razor. I was shaved this morning with a

sort of bill-hook. (Galsworthy)


41. Dare means to have the courage (or impertinence) to do something. In the negative it denotes the lack of courage to do something.

I dare not be alone at night. (Voynich)

Dare has two forms– dare for the Present and dared for the Past.

Did he dare to strike me when I was down? (E.Bronte)

She dared not look into the glass. (Dickens)

Sometimes dare takes the auxiliary but is followed by the bare infinitive.

You know you didn't dare give the order to charge the bridge until you saw us on the other side. (Shaw)

Dare is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences.
42. Will is hardly ever a purely modal verb. It generally combines its modal meaning with the function of an auxiliary expressing futurity.

The modal verb will expresses volition, intention on the part of the speaker, or persistence.

1. Volition, intention.

«What is this? Who is this? Turn this man out. Clear the office!» cried Mr. Fang. «I will speak,» cried the man; «I will not be turned out...» (Dickens)

Very often will is used after the conjunction if in conditional clauses where it retains its modal meaning, that of volition.

You may laugh if you will but I was sure I should see her there.

The modal verb will is used in polite requests and inquiries.

Will you have a cup of tea?

Will you wait a moment, please?

2. Persistence referring to the present or to the future.

«Don't tell me.» «But I will tell you,» repeated Sikes. (Dickens)
Would was originally the past tense of will in the same way as should was the past tense of shall.

1. Volition. In this meaning it is mostly used in negative sentences.

She was going away and would not say where she was going.

2. Persistence.

I asked him not to bang the door, but he would do it.

3. Closely connected with the primary meaning of volition is the use of would to express habitual or recurrent actions; it is commonly used in literary descriptions, but not in speaking:

In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours.
43. The modal verbs should and ought are treated together here as there is hardly any difference between them. Very often they are interchangeable.

Both should and ought express obligation, something which is advisable, proper or naturally expected.

1. Obligation, very often a moral obligation or duty.

In this meaning ought is more often used than should.

You ought to say a word or two about yourself.

2. Advisability

In this meaning should is more common than ought, as it always shows some personal interest whereas ought is more matter-of-fact.

You should be more careful. (London)

3. Something, which can be naturally expected.

The new sanatorium ought to be very comfortable.

The film should be very good as it is starring first-class actors.


    1. см тетрадь.


45. The Subjunctive Mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as a non-fact, as something imaginary or desired. It refers to what could or should happen in hypothetical situations. The Subjunctive Mood is also used to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts. In Modern English the Subjunctive Mood has synthetic and analytical forms.

«I wish I were ten years older,» I said. (Braine)

  1. The Present Subjunctive. In the Present Subjunctive the verb to be has the form be for all the persons singular and plural, which differs from the corresponding forms of the Indicative Mood (the Present Indefinite). The Present Subjunctive denotes an action referring to the present or future.

Here will I stand till Caesar pass along. (Shakespeare)

2. The Past Subjunctive. In the Past Subjunctive the verb to be has the form were for all the persons singular and plural, which in the singular differs from the corresponding form, of the Indicative Mood (the Past Indefinite).

If I was/ were better qualified, I would apply for the job.

However, were is preferable in purely imaginary statements:

If I were the Queen, you would be the King.

The analytical forms of the Subjunctive Mood consist of the mood auxiliaries should, would, may (might) and the infinitive of the notional verb.

Yates wished Bing would stop thanking him, but

Bing went on. (Heym)

In simple sentences the synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood are more frequent than the analytical forms. In simple sentences the Subjunctive Mood is used:

(1) to express wish:
Long live the forces of peace!

(2) to express an unreal wish:

If only he were free! (Galsworthy)

If only the storm were over!

(3) in oaths and imprecations:

Manners be hanged!

(4) in some expressions:

Suffice it to say that...

a) In sentences of unreal condition referring to the present or future the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used in the subordinate clause;

The world would be healthier if every chemist's shop in England were demolished. (Shaw)

b) In sentences of unreal condition referring to the past the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used in the subordinate clause;

If I had got up earlier, I would have been on time.

If I had lived in the Stone Age, I would have been a hunter.

c) There are two mixed types of sentences of unreal condition. In the first of these the condition refers to the past and the consequence refers to the present or future.

If you had taken your medicine yesterday, you would be well now.

The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of purpose. When a clause of purpose is introduced by the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, we find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) if the principal clause refers to the present or future;

Let the dog loose so that he may have a run.

She opens (will open) the window that she may (might) get a breath

of fresh air.

The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of concession. Adverbial clauses of concession are introduced by the conjunctions and connectives though, although, however, no matter, whatever, whoever, etc. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) is generally used with reference to the present of future.

Though he may (might) be tired

Tired though he may (might) be. 

The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of time and place after the conjunctions whenever and wherever; in these cases the clauses have an additional concessive meaning.

Whenever you may (might) come, you are welcome.

The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of comparison (or manner) introduced by the conjunctions as if and as though (the latter is more literary).

She speaks (spoke) about him as if she knew him well.

The Subjunctive Mood is used in predicative clauses:

a) introduced by the conjunctions as if, as though, when we find the link verbs to be, to feel, to look, to seem, etc. in the principal clause.

I feel as if we were back seven years, Jon. (Galsworthy)

b) when the subject of the principal clause is expressed by an abstract noun such as wish, suggestion, aim, idea, etc. In this case the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used:

Mary's wish was that... our mother should come and live

with her. (E. Bronte)

The Subjunctive Mood is used in subject clauses introduced by the anticipatory it (it is necessary, it is important, it is right, it is requested, it is recommended, obligatory, desirable, etc.). The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should is used for all persons.

It was necessary that the child's history should be known to none.
46. The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character.

The gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics оf the gerund are as follows.

1. The gerund can perform the function of subject, object and predicative.

Crossing the river was a hard task. (subject)

She enjoyed sitting in the sun. (direct object)

Deciding is acting. (predicative)

2. The gerund can be preceded by a preposition.

The rain showed no sign of stopping.

I am relieved at being left alone.

3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun.

His getting divorced surprised everybody.

She insisted on his taking a cup of tea with the family.

The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

I had now made good progress in understanding and speaking their language. (Swift)

2. The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

He began snapping the pebbles carefully into the stream.

She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)

3. The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in Modern English are as follows:
Indefinite: doing (Active Voice), being done (Passive Voice)

Perfect: having done (Active), having been done (Passive)

1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

I was tired of reading and dead sleepy.

2. The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb. He didn’t remember ever having seen her in black.

The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. (Maugham)

It is to be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

The car needs repairing.

1. With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others.

He avoided looking at Savina. (Wilson).

2. With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss an (the) opportunity of and some others.

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. (Heym)

3. With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy with, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while), and some others.

He was aware of Becky’s having got married.
47. The Infinitive developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties.

1. The nominal character of the Infinitive is manifested in its syntactic functions. The Infinitive can be used:

a) as the subject of a sentence.

To visit her was all that I desired.

b) as a predicative.

Your mistake was to send him that letter.

c) as an object.

They agreed to help us.

2. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive are as follows:

a) the Infinitive of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

I forgot to mail the letter.

b) the Infinitive can be modified by an adverb.

I cannot write so quickly.

Like the tense distinctions of all verbals those of the Infinitive are not absolute but relative.

1. The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future.

I am glad to meet you. (Dreiser)

2. The Continuous Infinitive also denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb, but it is an action in progress.

It was pleasant to be driving the car again.

He pretended to be reading in his room.

3. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.

"I'm glad to have seen you," he said. (Dreiser)

4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action, which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb. It is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form.

For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam. (Jerome)

The Infinitive of transitive verbs has special forms for the Active and the Passive Voice:

I’m glad to hear you say so. (Active)

There is only one thing to be done. (Passive)

I cannot trifle or be trifled with.

In sentences with the construction there is the Infinitive of some verbs can be active or passive without any change in the meaning;

There's no time to lose. (Dreiser)

There is no time to be lost. (Eliot)

1. The Infinitive as a subject. The to- Infinitive is but seldom used in this function:

To send him that letter was a mistake.

To fulfil this condition was out of my power.

2. The Infinitive as a predicative.

He’s greatest wish was to tell her everything

3. The Infinitive as
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