Ответы на экзаменационные вопросы по грамматике английского языка - файл n1.doc

Ответы на экзаменационные вопросы по грамматике английского языка
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particularizing attribute.

The definite article is used when a noun is modified by an at­tribute, which shows that a particular object is meant i. e. by an attribute, which might be called a particularizing attribute.

The definite article is used:

(1) With nouns modified by adjectives in the superlative de­gree.

Miss Tox had the softest voice that ever was heard. (Dickens)

(2) With nouns in word-groups the first component of which is some, many, none, most and the second a noun with the prepo­sition of.

Most of the gentlemen looked both angry and uncomfortable. (Voynich)

(3) With nouns modified by the pronoun the same and the adjec­tives wrong (не тот), right (тот), very (именно тот, тот самый).

At all invitations he replied with the same courteous and posi­tive refusal. (Voynich)
(4) With substantivized adjectives and participles.
Only the simple and the humble were abroad at that early hour (Bennett)
7. 1. Collective nouns used in general sentence without any article.

2. the situation make them definite.

3. social and political groups with the definite article ( the public, the police).

8. With nouns of material used in a general sense, when a certain material as such is meant, no article is used.
Honey is wholesome.

On hearing what had happened, she (Katie) ran for warm water ... (Voynich)
When a definite part of the substance is meant (when the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute or is made definite by the situation), the definite article is used.
Pettinger gulped down a glass of the sherry, which Cornelius had finally brought. (Heym)

When an indefinite part of the substance is meant, some is used.
We took some bread and cheese with us, and got some goat's milk up there on the pasture. (Voynich)

When abstract nouns are used in a general sense, no article is used.
While there is life there is hope.

When abstract nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes the idea definite modifies abstract nouns, they are used with the definite article.

Last night I heard Carmen and enjoyed the music.

Note 1. It should be borne in mind that abstract nouns modified by an attri­bute in pre-position are used without articles unless particularizing attributes modifies them: English literature, Russian art, Italian music etc.

Note 2. The abstract noun weather is never used with the indefinite article.

What fine weather!

It is burning weather. (Ch. Bronte)

Abstract nouns can be used with the indefinite article; in this case the abstract now denotes a certain kind (оттенок) of a quality, feeling, state, etc. The noun nearly always has a descriptive attribute.
How clever you are, Mr. Hopper. You have a cleverness quite of your own. (Wilde)

The indefinite article is used with the nouns period, po­pulation, distance, height, salary etc. followed by of +numeral + noun.
Simpson was out of the city for a period of ten days. (Dreiser)
9. 1. Names of persons are used without articles.
Sarie looked at Lanny and Celia. (Abrahams)
2. Names denoting the whole family are used with the definite article.
The Dashwoods were now settled at Berton. (Austen)
3. When names of persons are used to denote a representative of a family, the indefinite article is used.
“Florence will never, never, never be a Dombey,” said Mrs. Chick. (Dickens)
4. Names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute are used with the definite article.
You're not the Andrew Manson I married. (Cronin)

5. Names of persons used as common nouns take the article according to the general rule on the use of articles.

Swithin smiled and nodding at Bosinney said, "Why, you are quite a Monte Cristo." (Galsworthy)

6. Nouns denoting military ranks and titles such as academician, professor, doctor (both a profession and a title), count, lord, etc. followed by names of persons do not take the article.

In such cases only the proper noun is stressed: Colonel' Brown, Doctor' Strong.

7. Nouns expressing relationship followed by names of persons do not take the article: Aunt Polly, Uncle James.

She turned to Cousin Clixam. (Bennett)

8. The use of articles with names of persons modified by ad­jectives is varied.

In most cases no article is used with names of persons modified by the adjectives old, young, poor, dear, little, honest, lazy.
... she is the widow of poor Giovanni Bolla ... (Voynich)

He saw that old Chapin wanted to moralize a little. (Dreiser)

9. Names of persons modified by the adjective certain are used with the indefinite article.

I heard it from a certain Mr. Brown.
10. The following geographical names are used without articles:

  1. Names of continents:

Africa, Antarctica, America, Asia, Australia, Europe

But: the Arctic, the Antarctic, as they denote the regions round the north and south poles.

  1. Names of countries, counties, provinces, states:

France, Italy, Texas, Wisconsin, Devonshire, Scotland

Note 1. Some names of countries, counties, etc. require the definite article; some other names can be used with or without the definite article: (the) Congo, (the) Lebanon, (the) Senegal, the Ruhr, the Saar, the Ukraine, the Crimea etc.

Note 2. Names of states consisting of word groups are used with the definite article:

the United States of America (the USA), the UK.

  1. Names of cities, towns, villages:

London, New York, Stradford-on-Avon

Note: The only exception is the Hague

  1. Names of mountain peaks, islands:

Elbrus, Mount Everest, Cyprus, Man, Java

  1. Names of lakes:

Lake Michigan, Lake Baikal BUT: the Michigan, the Baikal

  1. Names of waterfalls:

Niagara Falls, Victoria Falls

  1. Names of bays:

Hudson Bay

  1. Names of peninsulas and capes:

Hindustan, Labrador, Cape Horn

Other geographical names take the definite article.

These are:

  1. Names of seas, oceans, rivers, straits, canals:

The Atlantic (ocean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the Thames, the Mississippi, the Bering Strait, the Suez Canal, the English Channel

  1. Names of mountain chains and groups of islands:

the Alps, the Rocky Mountains, the Hawaii, the Bermudas

  1. Names of deserts:

the Sahara, the Gobi

  1. Names of mountain passes:

the Saint Gotthard Pass

  1. Geographical names having the plural form:

the Midlands, the Netherlands, the Yorkshire Forests , the Netherlands
Names of streets and squares are used without articles: Oxford Street, Wall Street, Trafalgar Square, Russell Square. There are a few exceptions: the High Street, the Strand, the Red Square.

The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions.

    1. in a hurry—второпях;

    2. to have a mind to do some- thing (a great mind, a good. mind) — иметь желание что-либо сделать, быть склонным что-либо сделать;

    3. to fly into a passion — прийти в бешенство;

    4. to get in a fury (in a rage) — прийти в ярость;

    5. to take a fancy to (chiefly with Names of living beings)— проникнуться симпатией, почувствовать расположение;

    6. in a low (loud) voice — тихо, (громко);

    7. a great many (with countables) — много

    8. a great deal ( with uncountables)—много

    9. it is a pity — жаль.

    10. it is a shame—стыдно.

    11. it is a pleasure—приятно.

    12. as a result—в результате.

11. The numeral is a part of speech, which indicates number or the order of persons and things in a series.

Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal nu­merals) and ordinals (ordinal numerals).

Cardinal numerals.

Cardinal numerals indicate exact number; they are used in counting.

Cardinal numerals are used in the function of subject, predi­cative, object, adverbial modifier and attribute (apposition).

... the young man opposite had long since disappeared. Now the other two got out. (Mansfield) (subject)

Earle Fox was only fifty-four, bill he felt timeless and an­cient. (Wilson) (PREDICATIVE)

And again she saw them, but not four, more like forty laugh­ing, sneering, jeering... (Mansfield) (object)

At eight the gang sounded for supper. (Mansfield) (adverbial modifier)

Four men in their shirtsleeves stood grouped together on the garden path. (Mansfield) (attribute)

Ordinal numerals.

Ordinal numerals show the order of persons and things in a series.

The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence.

As a rule ordinal numerals are used as attributes.

"No, this is my first dance," she said. (Mansfield)

Almost immediately the band started and her second partner seemed to spring from the ceiling. (Mansfield)

But they may also be used as subject, as predicative and as object.

Then, advancing obliquely towards us came a fifth. (Wells) (SUBJECT)

Sooner or later, someone is going to tell you about that damned river, so I might as well be the first. (Wilson) (predicative)
12. The pronoun is a part of speech, which points out objects and their qualities without naming or describing them.

Pronouns fall under the following groups:

  1. Personal pronouns: he, she, it, I, we, you, and they.

  2. Possessive pronouns: my, his, her, its, our, your, their, mine, his, hers, our's, yours, theirs.

  3. Reflexive pronouns: myself, himself, herself, itself, our­selves, yourself (yourselves) and themselves.

  4. Reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another.

  5. Demonstrative pronouns: this (these), that (those), such, (the) same.

(6) Interrogative pronouns: who, whose, what, which.

(7) Relative pronouns: who, whose, which, that, as.

(8) Conjunctive pronouns: who, whose, which, what.

(9) Defining pronouns: each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, all, either, both, other, another.

(10) Indefinite pronouns: some, any, somebody, anybody, some­thing, anything, someone, anyone, one.

(11) Negative pronouns: no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing

Some pronouns have the grammatical categories of person, gender, case and number.

Personal pronouns.

1. The personal pronouns are I, he, she, it, we, you, and they. The personal pronouns have the grammatical categories of person, case, number and (in the third person singular) gender.

The personal pronouns have two cases: the nominative case and the objective case. The nominative case: I, he, she, it, we, you, they. The objective case: me, him, her, it, us, you, them.

The personal pronouns have two numbers, singular (I, he, she, it) and plural (we, they).

The second-person pronoun you is both singular and plural.

The pronouns of the third person he, she, it distinguish gender. Male beings (man, father, uncle, boy etc.) are referred to as he; female beings (woman, mother, aunt, girl etc.) are referred to as she; inanimate things (house, tree, cap etc.) are referred to as it.

Her husband asked a few questions and sat down to read the evening paper. He was a silent man... (Dreiser)

2. Personal pronouns may have different functions in the sen­tence, those of subject, object, and predicative:

I am not free to resume the interrupted chain of my reflections till bedtime… (Ch. Bronte) (subject)

He arranged to meet her at the 96th Street station... (Wilson) (OBJECT)

"Who's there?" "It's me." "Who's me?" "George Jackson, sir." (Twain) (PREDICATIVE)

But I think that was him I spoke to. (Cronin) (predicative)
13. 1. Possessive pronouns have the same distinctions of person, number and gender as personal pronouns.

2. Possessive pronouns have two forms, namely the dependent (or conjoint) form and the independent (or absolute) form.

Conjoint forms of possessive pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3rd person

SINGULAR my his, her, its,


PLURAL our their

Absolute forms of possessive pronouns
SINGULAR mine his, hers


PLURAL ours theirs
The conjoint form is used when the possessive pronoun comes before the noun it modifies. The conjoint form of the possessive pronoun is used as an attribute.

In his turn old Jolyon looked back at his son. (Galsworthy)

The absolute form is used when the possessive pronoun does not modify any noun.

3. Possessive pronouns are often used before the names of the parts of the body, clothing, things belonging to a person, etc. In that case they are not translated into Russian.

Young Jolyon rose and held out his hand to help his father up.

The girl dropped her handkerchief and he picked it up. (Galsworthy)
14. 1. Reflexive pronouns have the categories of person, number, and gender in the third person singular.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person

singular: myself yourself himself, herself,


plural: ourselves yourselves themselves

2. Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sentence in which they are used, indicating that the action performed by the doer passes back to him or is associated with him. In the sentence they are usually used as direct objects.

In that moment of emotion he betrayed the Forsyte in him—for­got himself, his interests, his property—was capable of almost anything... (Galsworthy) (object)

Reflexive pronouns may be used as predicatives.

When she came back she was herself again. (Hardy) (predicative)

Reflexive pronouns preceded by a preposition may be used as indirect prepositional objects, as attributes and as adverbial mo­difiers.

If June did not like this, she could have an allowance and live by herself. (Galsworthy) (adverbial modifier of manner)

Reflexive pronouns may be used to form the reflexive voice (in this case reflexive pronouns are structural words):

Undressing again, she washed herself intensively... (Galsworthy)

And then I dressed myself and came away to find you. (Hardy)

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used emphatically:

Moreover, Soames himself disliked the thought of that. (Galsworthy)
15. 1. Reciprocal pronouns are the group-pronouns each other and one another. They express mutual action or relation. The subject to which they refer must always be in the plural.

"I didn't really know him," he thought, "and he didn't know me; but we loved each other." (Galsworthy)

We haven't set eyes on one another for years. (Priestly)

Each other generally implies only two, one another two or more than two persons:

He had never heard his father or his mother speak in an angry voice, either to each other, himself, or anybody else. (Galsworthy)

2. Reciprocal pronouns have two case forms.

Girls banged into each other and stamped on each other's feet. (Mansfield)

The common case of reciprocal pronouns is used as an object.

The men were not grave and dignified. They lost their tempers easily and called one another names... (London)

The genitive case of reciprocal pronouns may be used as an attribute.

Reciprocal pronouns preceded by a preposition are used as a prepositional indirect object:

They look at one another for a moment. (Dickens)

...in silence they stared at each other. (Saxton)
16. 1. Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry, to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.

The interrogative pronoun who has the category of case; the nominative case is who, the objective case whom.

Who refers to human beings?

Slipping her hand under his arm, she said: "Who was that?" "He picked up my handkerchief. We talked about pictures." (Galsworthy)

2. In the sentence interrogative pronouns may have different functions—those of subject, predicative, object and attribute:

Who, do you think, has been to see you, Dad? She couldn't wait! Guess. (Galsworthy) (subject)

"No, who's he?" "Oh, he's a Polish Jew." (Aldington) (predica­tive)

"He says he's married," said Winifred. "Whom to, for goodness' sake?" (Galsworthy) (object)

"Who do you mean?" I said. (Du Maurier) (object)

"What sort of a quarrel?" he heard Fleur say. (Galsworthy) (ATTRIBUTE)
17. 1. The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, such, (the) same.

The demonstrative pronouns this and that have two numbers thisthese; that—those.

This is used to point at what is nearer in time or space; that points at what is farther away in time or space.

He looked him over critically. "Yes, this boy might do," he thought. (Dreiser)

2. The demonstrative pronouns this and that are used as sub­jects, predicatives, objects and attributes.

It's all right, but I'd rather try my hand at brokerage, I think that appeals to me. (Dreiser) (subject)

The only honest people — if they existed — were those who said: "This is foul brutality..." (Aldington) (predicative)

Tell me just how you did this. (Dreiser) (object)

"If that young fellow wanted a place, I'd give it to him," he thought. (Dreiser) (attribute)

The demonstrative pronoun that (those) may be used as a word-substitute:

But in thinking of his remaining guest, an expression like that of a cat who is just going to purr stole over his (Swithin's) old face.. (Galsworthy)

The pronoun such is used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute:

If any living man can manage this horse I can: —I won't say any living man can do it— but if such has the power, I am here. (Hardy) (subject)

Her idolatry of this man was such that she herself almost feared it to be ill omened. (Hardy) (predicative)

But such thoughts and visions did not prevent him from following Professor Caldwell closely. (London) (attribute)
18. 1. Conjunctive pronouns (who, what, whose, which) not only point back to some person or thing mentioned before but also have conjunctive power, introducing subordinate clauses (subject clauses, object clauses, predicative clauses).

What June had taken for personal interest was only the imper­sonal excitement of every Forsyte... (Galsworthy) (subject clause)

What you want, in fact, is a first-rate man for a fourth-rate fee, and that's exactly what you've got! (Galsworthy) (predicative clause)

I don't want to hear what you've come for. (Galsworthy) (object clause)

2. In the clause they introduce they perform different functions, those of subject, predicative, attribute and object.

What had made her yield he could never make out; and from Mrs. Heron, a woman of some diplomatic talent, he learnt nothing. (Galsworthy) (subject)

Erik realized with a sinking sensation that Haviland didn't know who he was. (Wilson) (predicative)

I've spent a lot of time in the chart-room now, and I'm on the edge of knowing my way about, what charts I want to refer to, what coasts I want to explore. (London) (attribute)

What Savina could no longer do for him, he did himself, and brutally brushed aside all other interests except her. (Wilson) (object)
19. Relative pronouns (who, whose, which, that, as) not only point back to a noun or a pronoun mentioned before but also have conjunctive power. They introduce attributive clauses. The word they refer to is called their antecedent. It may be a noun or a pronoun.

Who is used in reference to human beings or animals.

Which is used in reference to things and animals.

Here was her own style—a bed, which did not look like one and many mirrors. (Galsworthy).

That is mainly used in reference to animals and things. It may also be used in reference to human beings.

This... gave him much the same feeling a man has when a dog that he owns wriggles and looks at him. (Galsworthy)

As usually introduces attributive clauses when the demonstra­tive pronoun such is used in the principal clause (it is a rare case when as is used without such in the principal clause).

As may refer to living beings and things.

...perhaps the books were right and there were many such as she (Ruth) in the upper walks of life. (London)

2. Relative pronouns can also refer to a clause. Relative pronouns always perform some syntactical function in the clause they introduce.

Gemma, there's a man downstairs who wants to see you. (Voynich)(subject).

I think I have taken nothing that you or your people have given me. (Galsworthy) (object)

Families often think it due to themselves to turn their back on newcomers, whom they may not think quite enough for them. (Shaw) (object)
20. The defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, every­one, everything, either, both, other, another.

1. All is a generalizing pronoun; it takes a group of things or persons as a whole. All may be used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute.

... when all is said and done... (London) (subject)

He just loved me, that is all. (London) (predicative)

And Martin forgot all about it. (London) (object)

... if all the doors are closed... (London) (attribute)

2. Both points out two persons, things or notions mentioned before.

“But there is more to be said,” he continued, after a pause painful to both. (London)

You can study French, or you can study German, or cut them both out and study Esperanto... (London)

The pronoun both may be used as subject, object and attribute.

Both seemed to implore something to shelter them from reality. (Hardy) (subject)

The light, admitted by windows at both ends, was unfortunately not Chinese. (Galsworthy) (attribute)

3. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything.

Each and every refer to all the members of the group of per­sons, things, or notions mentioned before and taken one by one. When used as subject, each etc. require a verb in the singular.

Each may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers parted and entered their respective compartments. Each felt aggrieved that the other had not modified his habits to secure his society a little longer. (Galsworthy) (subject)

He paid a dollar each. (London) (object)

Every is used only as an attribute:

This is something more than genius. It is true, every line of it. (London)

Everybody, everyone refer to all the members of the group of persons mentioned before or taken one by one.

The pronouns everybody, everyone have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.

The common case may be used as subject and object.

You walked into the waiting room, into a great buzz of conver­sation, and there was everybody; you knew almost everybody. (Mansfield) (subject, object)

4. Either has two meanings:

  1. each of the two;

(b) one or the other.

The trail wasn't three feet wide on the crest, and on either side the ridge fell away in precipices hundreds, of feet deep. (London)

Then he remembered the underwriters and the owners, the two masters a captain must serve, either of which could and would break him and whose interests were diametrically opposed. (London)

5. Other, another.

Other denotes some object different from the one mentioned before.

Other has two numbers: singular—other, plural—others. It has two cases: the common case and the genitive case (other's, others').

Another has two meanings:

  1. “a different one”,

  2. “an additional one”.

He has learnt sheep farming at another place, and he's now mas­tering dairy work. (Hardy)

Yes, thought Soames, another year of London and that sort of life, and she'll be spoiled. (Galsworthy)

Another may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

The lantern hanging at her wagon had gone out but another was shining in her face much brighter than her own had been. (Hardy) (subject)

Often among the women he met, he would see now one, now another, looking at him, appraising him, selecting him. (London) (OBJECT)

Now I won't say another word. I am overwhelmed, crushed. (London) (ATTRIBUTE)
21. Indefinite pronouns point out some person or thing indefi­nitely. The indefinite pronouns are some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, and one.

The pronouns somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, one have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.

1. Some is chiefly used in affirmative sentences while any is used in negative and interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses.

We spread down some wide blankets. (0. Henry)

Some, not any, is used in special and general questions ex­pressing some request or proposal.

"Do you want some water?" "No, I don't want any water." (Maltz)

Some may have the meaning of “certain” (некоторые) before a noun in the plural.

You have some queer customers. Do you like this life? (Galsworthy)

Somebody, someone, something are chiefly used in affirmative sentences.

He wanted someone young; you know a dark Spanish type... (Mansfield)

I want to say something. (Galsworthy)

Anybody, anyone, anything are used in negative and interroga­tive sentences and in conditional clauses.

I don't want anything. (Voynich)

Somebody, someone, something are used in special and general questions if they express some request or proposal.

Will someone help me?

Anyone, anybody, anything may be used in affirmative senten­ces. Anyone, anybody are used with the meaning of “everyone” (любой); anything is used with the meaning of “everything'”(что угодно).

"You've no business to say such a thing!" she exclaimed. "Why not? Anybody can see it." (Galsworthy)

2. The indefinite pronouns some and any may be used as sub­ject, object and attribute.

Some say the world will end in fire,

Some say in ice (Frost) (subject)

When preceded by a preposition the pronouns somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything may be used as prepositional indirect objects.

The girl doesn't belong to anybody — is no use to anybody but me. (Shaw)

Such a purse had never been carried by anyone attentive to her. (Dreiser)

3. The indefinite-personal pronoun one is often used in the sense of any person or every person.

New York presents so many temptations for one to run into extravagance (O. Henry)

The indefinite pronoun one is often used in a general sense.

...Only one with constitution of iron could have held himself down, as Martin did. (London)

The pronoun one may be used in the genitive case:

I know exactly what it feels like to be held down on one's back. (Galsworthy)
22. Most of the indefinite pronouns correspond to negative pro­nouns: some — no, none; something — nothing, none; somebody, someone—nobody, no one, none.

Some defining pronouns also correspond to negative pronouns: everything—nothing; all, everybody, every, each—no, none, no­body; both, either—neither.

1. The negative pronoun no is used only before a noun as its attribute.

No dreams were possible in Dufton, where the snow seemed to turn black almost before it hit the ground. (Braine)

None of us—none of us can hold on forever! (Galsworthy)

... he took the letters from the gilt wire cage into which they had been thrust through the slit in the door. None from Irene. (Galsworthy)

It can be used as subject or object.

2. The negative pronouns nobody, no one refer to human beings. They correspond to the indefinite pronouns somebody, someone and to the defining pronouns all, every, each, everybody.

The negative pronoun nobody may be used in the genitive case: nobody's.

The negative pronouns nobody and no one are mostly used as subjects and objects.

Nobody seemed, to know him well. (Galsworthy) (subject)

He remembered the days of his desperate starvation when no one invited him to dinner. (London) (subject)

I told you once that I have no one in the world but you. (Voynich) (object)

3. The negative pronoun nothing refers to things. It is oppo­site to the indefinite pronoun something and to the defining pro­noun everything.

And nothing of vital importance had happened after that till the year turned. (Galsworthy)

Nothing may be used as subject, predicative or object.

There is nothing to worry about. (Galsworthy) (subject)

The negative pronoun neither is opposite to the defining pro­nouns either, both.

Neither of them answered; but their faces seemed to him as if contemptuous. (Galsworthy)

In the sentence it may be used as subject, object and attri­bute.

Neither was wise enough to be sure of the working of the mind of the other. (Dreiser) (subject)

The negative pronouns nobody, no one, nothing are singular in meaning and when they are used as the subject of the sentence they require a verb in the singular (see the above examples).
23. The adjective is a part of speech expressing a quality of a sub­stance.

The adjective has the following morphological character­istics:

Most adjectives have degrees of comparison: the comparative degree and the superlative degree.

The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of a quality.

She is taller than her sister.

My box is smaller than hers.

The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of a quality.

She is the tallest of the three sisters.

Her box is the smallest of all our boxes.

Adjectives form their degrees of comparison in the following way:

  1. By the inflexion -er, -est. (synthetical way);

(b) By placing more and most before the adjective (analytical way),

Monosyllabic adjectives usually form their comparatives and superlatives in the first way, and polysyllabic adjectives in the second way.

Adjectives of two syllables that end in -y, -ow, -er, -le form the degrees of comparison synthetically.

happy happier (the) happiest

narrow narrower (the) narrowest

clever cleverer (the) cleverest

simple simpler (the) simplest

Adjectives of two syllables, which have the stress on the last syllable, can form the degrees both in two ways:

complete completer (the) completest

more complete (the) most complete

Some adjectives have irregular forms of degrees of comparison, e.g.:

good better (the) best

bad worse (the) worst

many, much more (the) most

little less (the) least

far farther (the) farthest

further (the) furthest

old older (the) oldest

elder (the) eldest
The adjective has the following syntactical characteristics:

In a sentence the adjective may be used as an attribute or as a predicative.

A little fat chap thrust out his underlip and the tall fellow frowned. (Mansfield) (attributes)

Laura was terribly nervous. (Mansfield) (predicative)

The air was motionless… (Mansfield) (predicative)

The Classification of adjectives.

According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics ad­jectives fall under two classes: (1) qualitative adjectives, (2) rela­tive adjectives.

1. Qualitative adjectives denote qualities of a substance directly, not through its relation to another substance, as size, shape, colour, physical and mental qualities, qualities of general estimation:

little, large, high, soft, hard, warm, white, blue, pink, strong, bold, beautiful, important, necessary, etc.

2. Relative adjectives denote qualities of a substance through their relation to materials (silken, woollen, wooden), to place (Italian, Asian), to time (monthly, weekly), to some action (pre­paratory, rotatory).
24. 1. Most qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison:

big bigger (the) biggest

interesting more interesting (the) most interesting

Some qualitative adjectives such as greenish, darkish, incurable, unsuitable, chief, principal, have no degrees of comparison.

2. They have certain typical suffixes, such as -ful, -less, -ous, -ent, -able, -y, -ish: careful, careless, dangerous, convenient, comfortable, silvery, watery, whitish, shortish.

3. From most of them adverbs can be formed by the suffix -ly:



4. Most qualitative adjectives can be used as attributes and predicatives.
How lovely the little river is, with its dark, changing wavelets! (Eliot) (attributes)

The young man was introduced, and they sat down at the table. (Aldington) (attribute)

But you're nearly as old as I am! (Aldington) (predicative)

Substantivized adjectives have acquired some or all of the characteristics of the noun, but their adjectival origin is still generally felt.

Substantivized adjectives are divided into wholly substantivized and partially substantivized adjectives.

Wholly substantivized adjectives have all the characteristics of nouns, namely the plural form, the genitive case; they are associated with articles,

i. e. they have become nouns: a native, the natives, a native's hut.

Partially substantivized adjectives acquire only some of the characteristics of the noun; they are used with the definite article. Partially substantivized adjectives denote a whole class: the rich, the poor, the unemployed etc. They may also denote abstract notions: the good, the evil, the beautiful, the singular, the plural etc.

Substantivized adjectives denoting nationalities fall under wholly and partially substantivized adjectives.

Wholly substantivized adjectives are: a Russian—Russians, a German — Germans.

Partially substantivized adjectives are: the English, the French, the Chinese etc.
25. The adverb is a part of speech, which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state, or points out some characteristic features of an action or a quality.

The function of the adverb is that of an adverbial modifier. An adverb may modify verbs (verbals), words of the category of state, adjectives and adverbs.

Annette turned her neck lazily, touched one eyelash and said: "He amuses Winifred." (Galsworthy)

As to their structure adverbs are divided into:

(1) Simple adverbs (long, enough, then, there etc.);

(2) Derivative adverbs (slowly, likewise) forward, headlong etc.); (The most productive adverb-forming suffix is -ly. There are also some other suffixes: -wards, -ward, -long, -wise.)

(3) Compound adverbs (anyhow, sometimes, nowhere etc.);

(4) Composite adverbs (at once, at last etc.).

Some adverbs have degrees of comparison.

(a) If the adverb is a word of one syllable, the comparative degree is formed by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est.

fast — faster — fastest

hard — harder — hardest

(b) Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative by means of more and the superlative by means of most.

wisely — more wisely — most wisely

beautifully—more beautifully—most beautifully

(c) Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison:

well —better—best

badly worse —- worst

much — more — most

little — less — least

According to their meaning adverbs fall under several groups:

(1) Adverbs of time (today, to-morrow, soon etc.);

(2) Adverbs of repetition or frequency (often, seldom, ever, never, sometimes etc.);

(3) Adverbs of place and direction (inside, outside, here, there, backward, upstairs etc.);

(4) Adverbs of cause and consequence (therefore, consequently, accordingly etc.);

(5) Adverbs of manner (kindly, quickly, hard etc.);

(6) Adverbs of degree, measure and quantity (very, enough, half, too, nearly, almost, much, little, hardly, rather, exceedingly, quite, once, twice, firstly, secondly etc.).

Three groups of adverbs stand aside: interrogative, relative and conjunctive adverbs.

Interrogative adverbs (where, when, why, how) are used in special questions.

Conjunctive and relative adverbs are used to introduce subordinate clauses.

  1. Adverbs of time – yesterday, then, yet, now, today, tomorrow, etc. – are placed at the end of the sentence or at the very beginning of it.

I went to the theatre yesterday. Yesterday I went to the theatre.

  1. Adverbs of repetition and frequency – often, never, seldom, sometimes, usually, still etc. - precede the principal verb.

They never do this. He often goes there.

  1. Adverbs of manner – kindly, badly, well, etc. and of place – here, there etc. – are usually placed after the direct object or after the verb.

Mr. Black’s wife plays the piano well.

  1. If an adverb of time and an adverb of place are used together the latter precedes the former.

I’ll go there tomorrow.

  1. Adverbs of degree (almost, nearly, quite, just, too, very etc.) are generally placed before adjectives or other adverbs.

I find him very clever. We know him quite well.
26. Verb is a part of speech, which denotes an action (run, play) or a state (love, seem). The verb has the following grammatical categories: person, number, tense, aspect, voice and mood.

According to their morphological structure verbs are divided into:

a) simple (read, live, hide, speak),

b) derived, i. e. having affixes (magnify, fertilize, captivate, undo, decompose),

c) compound, i. e. consisting of two stems (daydream, browbeat),

d) composite, consisting of a verb and a postposition of adverbial origin (sit down, go away, give up).

The basic forms of the verb in Modern English are; the Infinitive, the Past Indefinite and Participle II: to speak—-spoke— spoken.

According to the way in which the Past Indefinite and Participle II are formed, verbs are divided into three groups: regular verbs, irregular verbs, and mixed verbs.

1. Regular verbs. They form the Past Indefinite and Participle II by adding -ed to the stem of the verb, or only -d if the stem of the verb ends in


to want—wanted

to unite—united

to open—opened

Irregular verbs. Here belong the following groups of verbs:

a) verbs which change their root vowel:

to sing — sang — sung

to meet — met — met

to win — won — won

b) verbs which change their root vowel and add -en for Participle II:

to speak — spoke — spoken

to write —wrote—written

to take —took —taken

c) verbs which change their root vowel and add -d or -t :

to sell —sold —sold

to bring — brought — brought

d) verbs which change their final -d into -t :

to send —sent —sent

to build — built — built

Mixed verbs. Their Past Indefinite is of the regular type, and their Participle II is of the irregular type:

to show — showed — shown

to sow —sowed —sown

According to the syntactic function of verbs, which depends on the extent to which they retain, weaken or lose their meaning, they are divided into notional verbs, auxiliary verbs and link verbs.

1. A notional verb is a verb which has an independent meaning and function in the sentence. It is used as a simple verbal predicate and expresses an action or a state of the person or thing denoted by the subject. Here belong such verbs as to write, to read, to speak, to know, to ask.

Ricky surrounded her with great care and luxury. (Stern)

Auxiliary verbs are those which have lost their meaning and are used only as form words, thus having only a grammatical function. They are used in analytical forms. Here belong such verbs as to do, to have, to be, shall, will, should, would, may.
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